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Wnt signaling via the Frizzled (Fz) receptor controls cell polarity and movement during development, but the molecular nature of Wnt/Fz polarity signal transduction remains poorly defined. Here we report that in human cells and during Xenopus embryogenesis, Wnt/Fz signaling activates the small GTPase Rho, a key regulator of cytoskeleton architecture. Wnt/Fz(More)
Radial glia cells function as guide cells for neuronal migration and a source of neural progenitor cells, and play a crucial role for the development of the central nervous system. To date, several signals have been demonstrated to promote the formation of radial glia cells and Notch signaling is one such signal. However, the mechanism of the signaling(More)
Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet) family of dioxygenases dynamically regulates DNA methylation and has been implicated in cell lineage differentiation and oncogenesis. Yet their functions and mechanisms of action in gene regulation and embryonic development are largely unknown. Here, we report that Xenopus Tet3 plays an essential role in early eye and neural(More)
Although the Notch signaling pathway is one of the most intensely studied intracellular signaling pathways, the mechanisms by which Notch signaling regulates transcription remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that B cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), a transcriptional repressor, is a Notch-associated factor. BCL6 is necessary to maintain the(More)
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family of cytokines, including Nodal, Activin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), have essential roles in development and tumorigenesis. TGF beta molecules activate the Smad family of signal transducers, which form complexes with specific DNA-binding proteins to regulate gene expression. Two discrete(More)
This paper presents a technique for estimating the degree or intensity of emotional expressions and speaking styles appeared in speech. The key idea is based on a style control technique for speech synthesis using multiple regression hidden semi-Markov model (MRHSMM), and the proposed technique can be viewed as the inverse process of the style control. We(More)
This paper describes a speaker adaptation technique for style control based on multiple regression hidden semi-Markov model (MRHSMM). In the MRHSMM-based style control technique, when available training data is very small, the resultant model would produce unnatural sounding speech. To overcome this problem, we propose a model adaptation technique for(More)
Radial glia cells are the first distinguishable glial population derived from neural epithelial cells and serve as guides for migrating neurons and as neural progenitor cells in the developing brain. Despite their functional importance during neural development, the determination and differentiation of these cells remains poorly understood at the molecular(More)
The authors employ behavioral theories of human motivation and affect and present an explanation for why some CSCW experience is satisfying and engaging for a user. In a longitudinal experiment, participants were divided into four groups and solved two open-ended problems together using a video-conference system. Traditional metrics of usability and product(More)