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Wnt signaling via the Frizzled (Fz) receptor controls cell polarity and movement during development, but the molecular nature of Wnt/Fz polarity signal transduction remains poorly defined. Here we report that in human cells and during Xenopus embryogenesis, Wnt/Fz signaling activates the small GTPase Rho, a key regulator of cytoskeleton architecture. Wnt/Fz(More)
Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet) family of dioxygenases dynamically regulates DNA methylation and has been implicated in cell lineage differentiation and oncogenesis. Yet their functions and mechanisms of action in gene regulation and embryonic development are largely unknown. Here, we report that Xenopus Tet3 plays an essential role in early eye and neural(More)
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family of cytokines, including Nodal, Activin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), have essential roles in development and tumorigenesis. TGF beta molecules activate the Smad family of signal transducers, which form complexes with specific DNA-binding proteins to regulate gene expression. Two discrete(More)
Radial glia cells function as guide cells for neuronal migration and a source of neural progenitor cells, and play a crucial role for the development of the central nervous system. To date, several signals have been demonstrated to promote the formation of radial glia cells and Notch signaling is one such signal. However, the mechanism of the signaling(More)
ComplementC4 shows extensive structural and functional similarity to complementC3, hence these components are believed to have originated by gene duplication from a common ancestor. Although to dateC3 cDNA clones have been isolated from all major classes of extant vertebrates includingXenopus, C4 cDNA clones have been isolated from mammalian species only.(More)
Epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa undergo a continual process of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis which is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway plays a critical role in this process. Mutations in the Wnt pathway, however, are associated with colorectal cancers. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is an(More)
This paper presents a technique for estimating the degree or intensity of emotional expressions and speaking styles appeared in speech. The key idea is based on a style control technique for speech synthesis using multiple regression hidden semi-Markov model (MRHSMM), and the proposed technique can be viewed as the inverse process of the style control. We(More)
We have previously reported the molecular cloning of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III gene, complement factor B (Bf) from Xenopus laevis, and linkage of the gene to the frog MHC. Here, we estimated the copy number of the Xenopus Bf gene by genomic Southern blotting analysis and demonstrated that Xenopus laevis has two copies of(More)
Stromal glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) are responsible for the selective incorporation of saturated and unsaturated fatty-acyl chains into chloroplast membranes, which is an important determinant of a plant's ability to tolerate chilling temperatures. The molecular mechanisms of plant chilling tolerance were elucidated by creating chimeric(More)
During vertebrate embryogenesis, secreted Wnt molecules regulate cell fates by signaling through the canonical pathway mediated by beta-catenin, and regulate planar cell polarity (PCP) and convergent extension movements through alternative pathways. The phosphoprotein Dishevelled (Dsh/Dvl) is a Wnt signal transducer thought to function in all Wnt signaling(More)