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Wnt signaling via the Frizzled (Fz) receptor controls cell polarity and movement during development, but the molecular nature of Wnt/Fz polarity signal transduction remains poorly defined. Here we report that in human cells and during Xenopus embryogenesis, Wnt/Fz signaling activates the small GTPase Rho, a key regulator of cytoskeleton architecture. Wnt/Fz(More)
Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet) family of dioxygenases dynamically regulates DNA methylation and has been implicated in cell lineage differentiation and oncogenesis. Yet their functions and mechanisms of action in gene regulation and embryonic development are largely unknown. Here, we report that Xenopus Tet3 plays an essential role in early eye and neural(More)
Radial glia cells function as guide cells for neuronal migration and a source of neural progenitor cells, and play a crucial role for the development of the central nervous system. To date, several signals have been demonstrated to promote the formation of radial glia cells and Notch signaling is one such signal. However, the mechanism of the signaling(More)
Cryopreservation is a pivotal process in cellular engineering for creating a continuous source of generated functional cell lines and for the convenience of various medical treatments that involve cell culture. FBS (fetal bovine serum) supplemented with 10% (v/v) DMSO is extensively used as a freezing medium for mammalian cells using conventional methods.(More)
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family of cytokines, including Nodal, Activin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), have essential roles in development and tumorigenesis. TGF beta molecules activate the Smad family of signal transducers, which form complexes with specific DNA-binding proteins to regulate gene expression. Two discrete(More)
Epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa undergo a continual process of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis which is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway plays a critical role in this process. Mutations in the Wnt pathway, however, are associated with colorectal cancers. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is an(More)
Although the Notch signaling pathway is one of the most intensely studied intracellular signaling pathways, the mechanisms by which Notch signaling regulates transcription remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that B cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), a transcriptional repressor, is a Notch-associated factor. BCL6 is necessary to maintain the(More)
The cytokine thrombopoietin (TPO), the ligand for the hematopoietic receptor c-Mpl, acts as a primary regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet production. We have determined the crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain of human TPO (hTPO(163)) to a 2.5-A resolution by complexation with a neutralizing Fab fragment. The backbone structure of(More)
Stromal glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) are responsible for the selective incorporation of saturated and unsaturated fatty-acyl chains into chloroplast membranes, which is an important determinant of a plant's ability to tolerate chilling temperatures. The molecular mechanisms of plant chilling tolerance were elucidated by creating chimeric(More)
During vertebrate embryogenesis, secreted Wnt molecules regulate cell fates by signaling through the canonical pathway mediated by beta-catenin, and regulate planar cell polarity (PCP) and convergent extension movements through alternative pathways. The phosphoprotein Dishevelled (Dsh/Dvl) is a Wnt signal transducer thought to function in all Wnt signaling(More)