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Wnt signaling via the Frizzled (Fz) receptor controls cell polarity and movement during development, but the molecular nature of Wnt/Fz polarity signal transduction remains poorly defined. Here we report that in human cells and during Xenopus embryogenesis, Wnt/Fz signaling activates the small GTPase Rho, a key regulator of cytoskeleton architecture. Wnt/Fz(More)
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family of cytokines, including Nodal, Activin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), have essential roles in development and tumorigenesis. TGF beta molecules activate the Smad family of signal transducers, which form complexes with specific DNA-binding proteins to regulate gene expression. Two discrete(More)
ComplementC4 shows extensive structural and functional similarity to complementC3, hence these components are believed to have originated by gene duplication from a common ancestor. Although to dateC3 cDNA clones have been isolated from all major classes of extant vertebrates includingXenopus, C4 cDNA clones have been isolated from mammalian species only.(More)
Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet) family of dioxygenases dynamically regulates DNA methylation and has been implicated in cell lineage differentiation and oncogenesis. Yet their functions and mechanisms of action in gene regulation and embryonic development are largely unknown. Here, we report that Xenopus Tet3 plays an essential role in early eye and neural(More)
We have previously reported the molecular cloning of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III gene, complement factor B (Bf) from Xenopus laevis, and linkage of the gene to the frog MHC. Here, we estimated the copy number of the Xenopus Bf gene by genomic Southern blotting analysis and demonstrated that Xenopus laevis has two copies of(More)
Radial glia cells function as guide cells for neuronal migration and a source of neural progenitor cells, and play a crucial role for the development of the central nervous system. To date, several signals have been demonstrated to promote the formation of radial glia cells and Notch signaling is one such signal. However, the mechanism of the signaling(More)
Epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa undergo a continual process of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis which is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway plays a critical role in this process. Mutations in the Wnt pathway, however, are associated with colorectal cancers. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is an(More)
This paper describes a speaker adaptation technique for style control based on multiple regression hidden semi-Markov model (MRHSMM), In the MRHSMM-based style control technique, when available training data is very small, the resultant model would produce unnatural sounding speech. To overcome this problem, we propose a model adaptation technique for(More)
The cytokine thrombopoietin (TPO), the ligand for the hematopoietic receptor c-Mpl, acts as a primary regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet production. We have determined the crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain of human TPO (hTPO(163)) to a 2.5-A resolution by complexation with a neutralizing Fab fragment. The backbone structure of(More)
Although the Notch signaling pathway is one of the most intensely studied intracellular signaling pathways, the mechanisms by which Notch signaling regulates transcription remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that B cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), a transcriptional repressor, is a Notch-associated factor. BCL6 is necessary to maintain the(More)