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BACKGROUND Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T(More)
Asthma is believed to be a risk factor for influenza infection, however little experimental evidence exists to directly demonstrate the impact of asthma on susceptibility to influenza infection. Using a mouse model, we now report that asthmatic mice are actually significantly more resistant to a lethal influenza virus challenge. Notably, the observed(More)
Francisella tularensis is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that causes life-threatening tularemia. Although the prevalence of natural infection is low, F. tularensis remains a tier I priority pathogen due to its extreme virulence and ease of aerosol dissemination. F. tularensis can infect a host through multiple routes, including the intradermal and(More)
Neuropsychological data in primates demonstrated a pivotal role of the hippocampal formation (HF) and parahippocampal gyrus (PH) in navigation and episodic memory. To investigate the role of HF and PH neurons in environmental scaling in primates, we recorded neuronal activities in the monkey HF and PH during virtual navigation (VN) and pointer translocation(More)
FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS Host–microorganism coexistence has enabled many pathogens to develop mechanisms to evade the immune system. One prime example is Francisella tularensis. This Gram-negative bacterium infects various wild animals such as rodents and rabbits, but also exists in water and soil. In rare cases, humans acquire F. tularensis infections(More)
BACKGROUND We have shown previously in mice, that infection with live viruses, including influenza/A and Semliki Forest virus (SFV), induces systemic partial activation of lymphocytes, characterized by cell surface expression of CD69 and CD86, but not CD25. This partial lymphocytes activation is mediated by type-I interferons (IFN-I). Importantly, we have(More)
Many currently available inactivated vaccines require "adjuvants" to maximize the protective immune responses generated against the antigens of interest. Recent studies in mice with gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-FLU) have shown its superior efficacy compared to other forms of inactivated FLU vaccines and its ability to induce both potent interferon(More)
Successful containment of infection is dependent on both innate and adaptive immune responses. Cytokines are essential components of both of these systems. In particular, type I interferons (IFN-I) are important components of early innate immunity against infections. However, the production of IFN-I could serve as a double-edged sword, in that it could help(More)
In most preclinical disease models, survival analyses are the gold standard for measuring the efficacy of medical interventions such as therapeutics or vaccines. In these analyses, treatment regimens that promote the survival and/or reduce the morbidity of experimental subjects (e.g., mice) are tested for efficacy. Although these analyses appear to be(More)
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