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Little is known about the genetics of nonsyndromic intellectual disability (NSID). We hypothesized that de novo mutations (DNMs) in synaptic genes explain an important fraction of sporadic NSID cases. In order to investigate this possibility, we sequenced 197 genes encoding glutamate receptors and a large subset of their known interacting proteins in 95(More)
SynGAP is a Ras-GTPase activating protein highly enriched at excitatory synapses in the brain. Previous studies have shown that CaMKII and the RAS-ERK pathway are critical for several forms of synaptic plasticity including LTP. NMDA receptor-dependent calcium influx has been shown to regulate the RAS-ERK pathway and downstream events that result in AMPA(More)
Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) are membrane semi-enclosed, submicron protein-enriched cellular compartments beneath postsynaptic membranes, which constantly exchange their components with bulk aqueous cytoplasm in synaptic spines. Formation and activity-dependent modulation of PSDs is considered as one of the most basic molecular events governing synaptic(More)
Drug discovery in psychiatry has been limited to chemical modifications of compounds originally discovered serendipitously. Therefore, more mechanism-oriented strategies of drug discovery for mental disorders are awaited. Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder with synaptic disconnectivity involved in its pathophysiology. Reduction in the dendritic(More)
The delivery of AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane is a critical step both for the synaptic delivery of these receptors and for the regulation of synaptic transmission. To directly visualize fusion events of transport vesicles containing the AMPA receptor GluA2 subunit with the plasma membrane we used pHluorin-tagged GluA2 subunits and total internal(More)
Homeostatic responses critically adjust synaptic strengths to maintain stability in neuronal networks. Compensatory adaptations to prolonged excitation include induction of Polo-like kinases (Plks) and degradation of spine-associated Rap GTPase-activating protein (SPAR) to reduce synaptic excitation, but mechanisms that limit overshooting and allow(More)
Rapid advances in genetics are linking mutations on genes to diseases at an exponential rate, yet characterizing the gene mutation-cell behavior relationships essential for precision medicine remains a daunting task. More than 350 mutations on small GTPase BRaf are associated with various tumors, and ∼40 mutations are associated with the neurodevelopmental(More)
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