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The present article proposes a theory of form perception in an attempt to understand puzzling problems in mental rotation and in perception of forms rotated in the frontal-parallel plane. According to the theory, it is critical to distinguish four types of information. They result from the orthogonal combination of two binary distinctions: information can(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the bond strengths of three different types of resin bonding systems to teeth prepared for endodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Access cavity preparation and removal of pulpal tissue were performed in bovine incisors. The root canals were chemically irrigated with saline (control), 5% sodium hypochlorite, 3% hydrogen peroxide,(More)
Bloom (1981) tested a weak version of the linguistic relativity hypothesis (i.e., "Language affects thinking though it does not determine thinking") in a series of cross-cultural experiments. According to Bloom, Chinese lacks two linguistic devices that are present in English and supposed to be critical in performing theoretical thinking. It was found that(More)
In a mirror, left and right are said to look reversed. Surprisingly, this very familiar phenomenon, mirror reversal, has still no agreed-upon account to date. This study compared a variety of accounts in the light of empirical data. In Experiment 1, 102 students judged whether the mirror image of a person or a character looked reversed or not in 15 settings(More)
We conducted two experiments to specify the properties of the representation underlying perceptual priming. We transformed a particular property of stimuli between study and test. We used novel stimuli to eliminate contamination by semantic memory. They were rotated by 0 degree, 90 degrees, or 180 degrees in Experiment 1 and were distorted horizontally in(More)
Past research has suggested that the use of a foreign language worsen decision making because of the heavier cognitive load imposed by a foreign language than by a native language (Takano & Noda, 1993). We discovered, however, that the foreign language usage can be beneficial to decision making under information overload (when it is based upon a large(More)
We conducted three experiments in order to investigate the effect of stimulus orientation on negative priming (NP). Using the picture naming task, Murray (1995) reported the occurrence of semantic NP by rotated distractors. As the rotation of picture stimuli seems to have little effect to reduce distractor interference, in the present study we used the(More)
Volpi (2004) pointed out that Alessandro Valignano, a 16th century Christian missionary, had considered the Japanese extreme collectivists. According to Volpi, his remark was based on Valignano's reports (1583, 1592) edited by Alvares-Taladriz (1954). However, it is highly questionable whether Volpi examined these texts directly because the information(More)
Mental rotation refers to rotational transformation of an object's visual mental image. Mental rotation may indicate that, unlike the object's verbal description , the image shares some spatial and visual properties with the object itself. INTRODUCTION When psychological studies of mental imagery revived in the late 1960s, arguments centered upon the(More)
Several previous studies on the misleading information effect employed priming tasks to examine the presence/absence of original information. Given hyperspecificity of priming, however, it is questionable whether or not their priming tasks were sensitive enough to detect original information because their stimuli were perceptually different from the slides(More)