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Density and fiber length belong to the parameters that are used by the pulping industry as indicators of wood quality for different industrial processes and final paper products. The feasibility of Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy for the non-destructive evaluation of fiber length and air-dry density of fast-growing E. camaldulensis(More)
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, coupled with multivariate analysis, has been used to evaluate the wood properties of sawn lumber of Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi), whose diffuse reflection spectra were acquired under static and moving conditions. Prediction models of the dynamic modulus of elasticity (E(fr)), the modulus of elasticity in bending tests(More)
The 9-intersection is an extension of the 9-intersection, which distinguishes the topological relations between various spatial objects by the pattern of a nested matrix. This paper develops a small set of constraints on this matrix, which is applicable to arbitrary pairs of spatial objects in various spaces. Based on this set of universal constraints, the(More)
Directed line segments are fundamental geometric elements used to model through their spatial relations such concepts as divergence, confluence, and interference. A new model is developed that captures spatial relations between pairs of directed line segments through the intersections of the segments' heads, bodies, and tails. This head-body-tail(More)
Tourists often have a hard time making their tour plans, especially when they are visiting a large city on a tight schedule. To relieve tourists from such difficulty, a computer-aided interactive tour planning system, called CT-Planner2, was developed. This system models a tourist advisor who makes tour plans customized for individual tourists. Guided by an(More)
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis was applied to estimate multiple traits of sawn lumber. The effects of the lumber conveying speed (LCS) and measurement resolution of spectra (MRS) on the calibrations were examined. NIR spectra ranging from 1300 to 2300 nm were acquired at LCSs of 10, 20, and 30 m/min and at MRSs of 2, 4,(More)
This paper develops a formal model of topological relations between a directed line segment (DLine) and a region in a two-dimensional space. Such model forms a foundation for characterizing movement patterns of an agent with respect to a region. The DLine-region relations are captured by the 9-intersection for line-region relations with further distinction(More)
It is often difficult for individual tourists to make a sightseeing tour plan because they do not have prior knowledge about the destination. Although several systems have been developed for assisting the user's tour planning, these systems lack interactivity, while demanding a lot of data input from the user. In this paper, we introduce a new(More)