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Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), also known as Mw, is a saprophytic, non-pathogenic strain of Mycobacterium and is commercially available as a heat-killed vaccine for leprosy and recently tuberculosis (TB) as part of MDT. In this study we provide evidence that cell-free supernatant collected from original MIP suspension induces rapid and enhanced(More)
Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is a non-pathogenic strain of mycobacterium and has been used as a vaccine against tuberculosis and leprosy. Here, we investigated the role of different pattern recognition receptors in the recognition of heat-killed MIP by macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with MIP caused upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines(More)
Bacteria and their ubiquitous cell wall component peptidoglycan (PGN) activate the innate immune system of the host and induce the release of inflammatory molecules. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent molecule involved in the cytotoxic effects mediated by macrophages (MPhi) against microorganisms. This study investigates the signaling pathway involved in(More)
Nod2 is a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor. It has been implicated in many inflammatory conditions. Its signaling has been suggested to modulate TLR responses in a variety of ways, yet little is known about the mechanistic details of the process. We show in this study that Nod2 knockdown mouse peritoneal macrophages secrete more IL1β than normal(More)
Many extracellular stimuli, e.g. microbial products, cytokines etc., result in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages. However, it is not known whether expression of the iNOS gene in response to microbial products is a primary response of macrophages, or is the result of paracrine/autocrine signalling induced by endogenous(More)
Questions form an integral part of our everyday communication , both offline and online. Getting responses to our questions from others is fundamental to satisfying our information need and in extending our knowledge boundaries. A question may be represented using various factors such as social, syntactic , semantic, etc. We hypothesize that these factors(More)
Despite the popular belief that granulomas are innate immune mechanism to restrict mycobacterial growth, evidences suggest that granulomas facilitate growth of Mycobacterium by recruiting large numbers of uninfected macrophages to the site of infection. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has been shown to be directly involved in recruitment of macrophages(More)
—Questions form an integral part of our everyday communication, both offline and online. Getting responses to our questions from others is fundamental to satisfying our information need and in extending our knowledge boundaries. A question may be represented using various factors such as social, syntactic, semantic, etc. We hypothesize that these factors(More)
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