Yoel E Stuart

Learn More
Ecological character displacement (ECD), the evolutionary divergence of competing species, has oscillated wildly in scientific opinion. Initially thought to play a central role in community assembly and adaptive radiation, ECD recovered from a 1980s nadir to present-day prominence on the strength of many case studies compiled in several influential reviews.(More)
In recent years, biologists have increasingly recognized that evolutionary change can occur rapidly when natural selection is strong; thus, real-time studies of evolution can be used to test classic evolutionary hypotheses directly. One such hypothesis is that negative interactions between closely related species can drive phenotypic divergence. Such(More)
As range shifts coincident with climate change have become increasingly well documented, efforts to describe the causes of range boundaries have increased. Three mechanisms-genetic impoverishment, migration load, or a physical barrier to dispersal-are well described theoretically, but the data needed to distinguish among them have rarely been collected. We(More)
Behavioral ecologists and evolutionary biologists have long studied how predators respond to prey items novel in color and pattern. Because a predatory response is influenced by both the predator's ability to detect the prey and a post-detection behavioral response, variation among prey types in conspicuousness may confound inference about(More)
BACKGROUND Coronary flow velocity varies widely between individuals, even at rest. Because of this variation, indices with less apparent deviation, such as the ratio of hyperemic to resting velocity (coronary flow reserve), have been more commonly studied. We tested the hypothesis that the flow continuity principle could be used to model resting coronary(More)
This study is a randomized, controlled, blinded, arteriographic trial to determine the effects of a low-cholesterol, low-fat, vegetarian diet, stress management and moderate aerobic exercise on geometric dimensions, shape and fluid dynamic characteristics of coronary artery stenoses in humans. Complex changes of different primary stenosis dimensions in(More)
Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species(More)
Both scientists and the public would benefit from improved communication of basic scientific research and from integrating scientists into education outreach, but opportunities to support these efforts are limited. We have developed two low-cost programs--"Present Your PhD Thesis to a 12-Year-Old" and "Shadow a Scientist"--that combine training in science(More)
Parallel evolution of similar traits by independent populations in similar environments is considered strong evidence for adaptation by natural selection. Often, however, replicate populations in similar environments do not all evolve in the same way, thus deviating from any single, predominant outcome of evolution. This variation might arise from(More)