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Distinct classes of neurons are generated at defined times and positions during development of the nervous system. It remains elusive how specification of neuronal identity coordinates with acquisition of pan-neuronal properties. Here we show that basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors Olig2 and Neurogenin2 (Ngn2) play vital roles in the(More)
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors have been shown to be essential for specification of various cell types. Here, we describe a novel bHLH family consisting of three members, two of which (Olig1, Olig2) are expressed in a nervous tissue-specific manner, whereas the third, Olig3 is found mainly in non-neural tissues. Olig1 and Olig2, which(More)
A polarity complex of PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) functions in various cell-polarization events, including neuron specification. The small GTPase Cdc42 binds to PAR-6 and regulates cell polarity. However, little is known about the downstream signals of the Cdc42-PAR protein complex. Here, we found that PAR-3 directly interacted with(More)
The coordinated migration of neurons is a pivotal step for functional architectural formation of the mammalian brain. To elucidate its molecular mechanism, gene transfer by means of in utero electroporation was applied in the developing murine brain, revealing the crucial roles of Rac1, its activators, STEF/Tiam1, and its downstream molecule, c-Jun(More)
Sonic hedgehog (Shh), an organizing signal from ventral midline structures, is essential for the induction and maintenance of many ventral cell types in the embryonic neural tube. Olig1 and Olig2 are related basic helix-loop-helix factors induced by Shh in the ventral neural tube. Although expression analyses and gain-of-function experiments suggested that(More)
Mammalian spermatogenesis produces numerous sperm for a long period based on a highly potent stem cell system, which relies on a special microenvironment, or niche, that has not yet been identified. In this study, using time-lapse imaging of green fluorescent protein-labeled undifferentiated spermatogonia (A(undiff)) and three-dimensional reconstitution, we(More)
A cell-adhesion molecule fasciclin 2 (FAS2), which is required for synaptic growth and still life (SIF), an activator of RAC, were found to localize in the surrounding region of the active zone, defining the periactive zone in Drosophila neuromuscular synapses. BetaPS integrin and discs large (DLG), both involved in synaptic development, also decorated the(More)
Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) have great potential as therapeutic agents. We report a method for inducing skeletal muscle lineage cells from human and rat general adherent MSCs with an efficiency of 89%. Induced cells differentiated into muscle fibers upon transplantation into degenerated muscles of rats and mdx-nude mice. The induced population(More)
The molecular machinery governing glutamatergic-GABAergic neuronal subtype specification is unclear. Here we describe a cerebellar mutant, cerebelless, which lacks the entire cerebellar cortex in adults. The primary defect of the mutant brains was a specific inhibition of GABAergic neuron production from the cerebellar ventricular zone (VZ), resulting in(More)
The growth of neurites (axon and dendrite) should be appropriately regulated by their interactions in the development of nervous systems where a myriad of neurons and their neurites are tightly packed. We show here that mammalian seven-pass transmembrane cadherins Celsr2 and Celsr3 are activated by their homophilic interactions and regulate neurite growth(More)