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Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. ES cells are currently the most promising donor cell source for cell-replacement therapy in PD. We previously described a strong neuralizing activity present on the surface of stromal cells, named stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA).(More)
Recent studies have revealed that neural precursor cells can be expanded not only from the subventricular zone and hippocampus but also from other regions of the human embryonic brain. To determine the regional differences of these precursor cells, we divided the brain of a 9-week-old human embryo into four parts, i.e., telencephalon, diencephalon,(More)
To investigate the effect of estrogen on neuronal differentiation, especially on dopaminergic (DA) neurons, human neural stem cells (NSCs) were differentiated in the presence of 17beta-estradiol. NSCs gave rise to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in vitro, the proportion of which was increased by 17beta-estradiol. Increase in TH-positive neurons(More)
As a consequence of blood-borne bacterial sepsis, endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria can trigger an acute inflammatory response, leading to a series of pathological events and often resulting in death. To block this inflammatory response to endotoxin, a novel lipid A analogue, E5531, was designed and(More)
Autotaxin is a secreted cell motility-stimulating exo-phosphodiesterase with lysophospholipase D activity that generates bioactive lysophosphatidic acid. Lysophosphatidic acid has been implicated in various neural cell functions such as neurite remodeling, demyelination, survival and inhibition of axon growth. Here, we report on the in vivo expression of(More)
Length-tension relationships and contractile responses to agonists associated with cyclic nucleotide levels in aortas from atherosclerotic rabbits were studied. The same number of tissues from healthy rabbits was also studied. Diffuse lesions were produced by denudation of the vascular endothelium of rabbit aorta using a balloon catheter and then feeding(More)
UNLABELLED Clonidine, an alpha(2) agonist, reduces the anesthetic requirement and attenuates harmful hemodynamic responses to noxious stimuli. We examined the responsible sites of action in the central nervous system for the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) and MAC blocking adrenergic response (MAC-BAR) reducing effects of systemically(More)
Although the antiatherosclerotic effects of estrogen are well known, the mechanisms involved have not been determined. We designed experiments in which strips of thoracic aorta from oophorectomized rabbits were contracted by the calcium ionophore A23187 and the inhibition of the contraction by estrogen and concomitant levels of cyclic nucleotides were(More)
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