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A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand(More)
The rapid closure of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) leaf in about 100 ms is one of the fastest movements in the plant kingdom. This led Darwin to describe the plant as "one of the most wonderful in the world". The trap closure is initiated by the mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. Previous studies have focused on the biochemical response of the(More)
Received (received date) Revised (revised date) A simple model is presented for the description of steady uniform shear ow of granular material. The model is based on a stress uctuation activated process. The basic idea is that shear between two particles layers induces uctuations in the media that may trigger a shear at some other position. Based on this(More)
Gravity perception plays a key role in how plants develop and adapt to environmental changes. However, more than a century after the pioneering work of Darwin, little is known on the sensing mechanism. Using a centrifugal device combined with growth kinematics imaging, we show that shoot gravitropic responses to steady levels of gravity in four(More)
Experiments have shown that when a horizontal cylinder rotates around the vertical axis in a granular medium, the drag force in the stationary regime becomes independent of the depth, in contradiction with the frictional picture stipulating that the drag should be proportional to the hydrostatic pressure. The goal of this study is to understand the origin(More)
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