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Horizontal gene transfer, in which genetic material is transferred from the genome of one organism to that of another, has been investigated in microbial species mainly through computational sequence analyses. To address the lack of experimental data, we studied the attempted movement of 246,045 genes from 79 prokaryotic genomes into Escherichia coli and(More)
Organisms of the third domain of life, the Archaea, share molecular characteristics both with Bacteria and Eukarya. These organisms attract scientific attention as research models for regulation and evolution of processes such as transcription, translation, and RNA processing. We have reconstructed the primary transcriptome of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2,(More)
The functional importance of the roughly 98% of mammalian genomes not corresponding to protein coding sequences remains largely undetermined. Here we show that some large-scale deletions of the non-coding DNA referred to as gene deserts can be well tolerated by an organism. We deleted two large non-coding intervals, 1,511 kilobases and 845 kilobases in(More)
Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retain extended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and rat genomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate the necessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four noncoding ultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs) from the mouse genome. To(More)
The SMARCA4 (also known as BRG1 in humans) chromatin remodeling factor is critical for establishing lineage-specific chromatin states during early mammalian development. However, the role of SMARCA4 in tissue-specific gene regulation during embryogenesis remains poorly defined. To investigate the genome-wide binding landscape of SMARCA4 in differentiating(More)
Sequence polymorphisms in a 58-kilobase (kb) interval on chromosome 9p21 confer a markedly increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of death worldwide. The variants have a substantial effect on the epidemiology of CAD and other life-threatening vascular conditions because nearly one-quarter of Caucasians are homozygous for risk(More)
The shape of the human face and skull is largely genetically determined. However, the genomic basis of craniofacial morphology is incompletely understood and hypothesized to involve protein-coding genes, as well as gene regulatory sequences. We used a combination of epigenomic profiling, in vivo characterization of candidate enhancer sequences in transgenic(More)
RNA levels were measured by blot hybridization to study the coordinate and differential expression of Rhodobacter capsulatus genes for light-harvesting I antenna proteins LH-I and LH-II; reaction center (RC) polypeptides L, M, and H; and bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis in response to light and O2. The genes for LH-II alpha and beta subunits(More)
The mRNA levels specific for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, light-harvesting I polypeptides alpha and beta, and reaction center polypeptides L and M were assayed by use of a series of DNA probes specific for each cognate mRNA. Both the steady-state amounts and sizes of the specific mRNAs were measured as a function of the light intensity incident to(More)
Patients homozygous for Tangier disease have a near absence of plasma HDL as a result of mutations in ABCA1 and hypercatabolize normal HDL particles. To determine the relationship between ABCA1 expression and HDL catabolism, we investigated intravascular remodeling, plasma clearance, and organ-specific uptake of HDL in mice expressing the human(More)