Yitzhak Pilpel

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Noise in gene expression is generated at multiple levels, such as transcription and translation, chromatin remodeling and pathway-specific regulation. Studies of individual promoters have suggested different dominating noise sources, raising the question of whether a general trend exists across a large number of genes and conditions. We examined the(More)
microRNAs (miRs) are small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. It is anticipated that, in combination with transcription factors (TFs), they span a regulatory network that controls thousands of mammalian genes. Here we set out to uncover local and global architectural features of the mammalian miR regulatory network. Using(More)
Recent years have seen intensive progress in measuring protein translation. However, the contributions of coding sequences to the efficiency of the process remain unclear. Here, we identify a universally conserved profile of translation efficiency along mRNAs computed based on adaptation between coding sequences and the tRNA pool. In this profile, the first(More)
Natural habitats of some microorganisms may fluctuate erratically, whereas others, which are more predictable, offer the opportunity to prepare in advance for the next environmental change. In analogy to classical Pavlovian conditioning, microorganisms may have evolved to anticipate environmental stimuli by adapting to their temporal order of appearance.(More)
The state of the transcriptome reflects a balance between mRNA production and degradation. Yet how these two regulatory arms interact in shaping the kinetics of the transcriptome in response to environmental changes is not known. We subjected yeast to two stresses, one that induces a fast and transient response, and another that triggers a slow enduring(More)
Many genomic loci contain transcription units on both strands, therefore two oppositely oriented transcripts can overlap. Often, one strand codes for a protein, whereas the transcript from the other strand is non-encoding. Such natural antisense transcripts (NATs) can negatively regulate the conjugated sense transcript. NATs are highly prevalent in a wide(More)
Proper functioning of biological cells requires that the process of protein expression be carried out with high efficiency and fidelity. Given an amino-acid sequence of a protein, multiple degrees of freedom still remain that may allow evolution to tune efficiency and fidelity for each gene under various conditions and cell types. Particularly, the(More)
Aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes, is a widespread phenomenon found in unicellulars such as yeast, as well as in plants and in mammalians, especially in cancer. Aneuploidy is a genome-scale aberration that imposes a severe burden on the cell, yet under stressful conditions specific aneuploidies confer a selective advantage. This dual nature of(More)
The vertebrate olfactory receptor (OR) subgenome harbors the largest known gene family, which has been expanded by the need to provide recognition capacity for millions of potential odorants. We implemented an automated procedure to identify all OR coding regions from published sequences. This led us to the identification of 831 OR coding regions (including(More)
A major challenge in comparative genomics is to understand how phenotypic differences between species are encoded in their genomes. Phenotypic divergence may result from differential transcription of orthologous genes, yet less is known about the involvement of differential translation regulation in species phenotypic divergence. In order to assess(More)