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The inflammasome regulates the release of caspase activation-dependent cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). By studying HMGB1 release mechanisms, here we identify a role for double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR, also known as EIF2AK2) in inflammasome activation. Exposure of macrophages to(More)
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), an abundant nuclear protein, was recently established as a proinflammatory mediator of experimental sepsis. Although extracellular HMGB1 has been found in atherosclerotic plaques, its potential role in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis remains elusive. In the present study, we determined whether HMGB1 induces(More)
Follicular atresia is common in female mammalian ovaries, where most follicles undergo degeneration at any stage of growth and development. Oxidative stress gives rise to triggering granulosa cell apoptosis, which has been suggested as a major cause of follicular atresia. However, the underlying mechanism by which the oxidative stress induces follicular(More)
The pathogenesis of sepsis is mediated in part by bacterial endotoxin, which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release proinflammatory factors like TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Fluorofenidone (AKF-PD) is a novel pyridone agent, which exerts a strong antifibrotic effect. In this work, we showed that AKF-PD also exert an inhibitory effect on acute(More)
SIGNIFICANCE High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an evolutionarily conserved and multifunctional protein. The biological function of HMGB1 depends on its cellular locations, binding partners, and redox states. Extracellular HMGB1 is a mediator of inflammation during infection or tissue injury. Immune cells actively release HMGB1 in response to(More)
BACKGROUND Accumulated evidence indicates that inflammation plays a critical role in the progression of many renal diseases. Fluorofenidone (AKF-PD) has been shown to attenuate renal fibrosis in a number of experimental renal fibrosis models. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of AKF-PD. METHODS Human proximal tubule (HK-2)(More)
OBJECTIVE Cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women worldwide and radiotherapy remains its predominant therapeutic treatment. Artesunate (ART), a derivative of artemisinin, has shown radiosensitization effect in previous studies. However, such effects of ART have not yet been revealed for cervical cancer cells. METHODS The effect of(More)
The pathogenesis of sepsis is mediated in part by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS), which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release early (e.g., TNF-alpha, IL-1beta) and late [e.g., high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein] pro-inflammatory cytokines. Specifically targeting early mediators has not been effective clinically, in(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a unique population of multipotent adult progenitor cells originally found in bone marrow (BM), are extremely useful for multifunctional therapeutic approaches. However, the growth arrest and premature senescence of MSCs in vitro prevent the in-depth characterization of these cells. In addition, the regulatory factors involved(More)
The current treatment for advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unsatisfactory due to resistance to chemotherapy and ionizing radiation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) regulates multiple cellular processes that are crucial for the proliferation and survival of all kinds of cells. Carbobenzoxyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal-H (MG132), a(More)