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The inflammasome regulates the release of caspase activation-dependent cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). By studying HMGB1 release mechanisms, here we identify a role for double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR, also known as EIF2AK2) in inflammasome activation. Exposure of macrophages to(More)
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), an abundant nuclear protein, was recently established as a proinflammatory mediator of experimental sepsis. Although extracellular HMGB1 has been found in atherosclerotic plaques, its potential role in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis remains elusive. In the present study, we determined whether HMGB1 induces(More)
BACKGROUND Radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern during radiotherapy. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD, SOD1) is a conserved enzyme for scavenging superoxide radical in cells. Because of the integrity of cell membranes, exogenous molecule is not able to be incorporated into cells, which limited the application of natural SOD1. The aim(More)
The pathogenesis of sepsis is mediated in part by bacterial endotoxin, which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release proinflammatory factors like TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Fluorofenidone (AKF-PD) is a novel pyridone agent, which exerts a strong antifibrotic effect. In this work, we showed that AKF-PD also exert an inhibitory effect on acute(More)
BACKGROUND Accumulated evidence indicates that inflammation plays a critical role in the progression of many renal diseases. Fluorofenidone (AKF-PD) has been shown to attenuate renal fibrosis in a number of experimental renal fibrosis models. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of AKF-PD. METHODS Human proximal tubule (HK-2)(More)
Follicular atresia is common in female mammalian ovaries, where most follicles undergo degeneration at any stage of growth and development. Oxidative stress gives rise to triggering granulosa cell apoptosis, which has been suggested as a major cause of follicular atresia. However, the underlying mechanism by which the oxidative stress induces follicular(More)
Radiation-induced skin injury is a serious concern during radiotherapy. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of radiation-induced skin injury has not been extensively reported. Most biological functions are performed and regulated by proteins and noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs). The interplay between mRNA and miRNA has(More)
The pathogenesis of sepsis is mediated in part by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS), which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release early (e.g., TNF-alpha, IL-1beta) and late [e.g., high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein] pro-inflammatory cytokines. Specifically targeting early mediators has not been effective clinically, in(More)
OBJECTIVE Cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women worldwide and radiotherapy remains its predominant therapeutic treatment. Artesunate (ART), a derivative of artemisinin, has shown radiosensitization effect in previous studies. However, such effects of ART have not yet been revealed for cervical cancer cells. METHODS The effect of(More)
SIGNIFICANCE High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an evolutionarily conserved and multifunctional protein. The biological function of HMGB1 depends on its cellular locations, binding partners, and redox states. Extracellular HMGB1 is a mediator of inflammation during infection or tissue injury. Immune cells actively release HMGB1 in response to(More)