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We study an over-the-counter (OTC) market with bilateral meetings and bargaining where the usefulness of assets, as means of payment or collateral, is limited by the threat of fraudulent practices. We assume that agents can produce fraudulent assets at a positive cost, which generates endogenous upper bounds on the quantity of each asset that can be sold,(More)
Phosphorus (P) redistribution from source to sink organs within plant is required for optimizing growth and development under P deficient condition. In this study, we knocked down expression of a phosphate transporter gene OsPht1;8 (OsPT8) selectively in shoot and/or in seed endosperm by RNA-interference using RISBZ1 and GluB-1 promoter (designate these(More)
Plant phosphorus (P) diagnosis is widely used for monitoring P status and guiding P fertilizer application in field conditions. The common methods for predicting plant response to P are time- and labour-consuming chemical measurements of the extractable soil P and plant P concentrations. In this study, we successfully generated a visual reporter system in(More)
We study counterfeiting of currency in a search-theoretic model of monetary exchange. In contrast to Nosal and Wallace (2007), we establish that counterfeiting does not pose a threat to the existence of a monetary equilibrium; i.e., a monetary equilibrium exists irrespective of the cost of producing counterfeits, or the ease with which genuine money can be(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the effects of adenovirus-mediated transfer of p14(ARF) and p16(INK4a) on growth and apoptosis of human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. RESULTS Pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, PC-7, PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 (p14(ARF)-/- and p16(INK4a)-/-), were used. PC-7 (p53 wt) and MIA PaCa-2 (p53 mt) cells infected with recombinant adenovirus(More)
Despite progress in identifying molecular drivers of cancer, it has been difficult to translate this knowledge into new therapies, because many of the causal proteins cannot be inhibited by conventional small molecule therapeutics. RNA interference (RNAi), which uses small RNAs to inhibit gene expression, provides a promising alternative to reach(More)
We study bilateral exchange, both direct trade and indirect trade that happens through chains of intermediaries or middlemen. We develop a model of this activity and present applications. This illustrates how, and how many, intermediaries get involved, and how the terms of trade are determined. We show how bargaining with one intermediary depends on(More)
This paper examines the theoretical interrelations between equilibrium (in)determinacy and economic growth in a one-sector representative-agent model of endogenous growth with progressive taxation of income and productive flow of public spending. We analytically show that if the demand-side effect of government purchases is weaker, the economy exhibits an(More)