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N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate ischemic brain damage but also mediate essential neuronal excitation. To treat stroke without blocking NMDARs, we transduced neurons with peptides that disrupted the interaction of NMDARs with the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95. This procedure dissociated NMDARs from downstream neurotoxic signaling(More)
Well-documented experimental evidence from both in vitro and in vivo models of stroke strongly supports the critical involvement of NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in neuronal damage after stroke. Despite this, the results of clinical trials testing NMDA receptor antagonists as neuroprotectants after stroke and brain trauma have been discouraging.(More)
Drug-dependent neural plasticity related to drug addiction and schizophrenia can be modeled in animals as behavioral sensitization, which is induced by repeated noncontingent or self-administration of many drugs of abuse. Molecular mechanisms that are critical for behavioral sensitization have yet to be specified. Long-term depression (LTD) of(More)
topographies of contingent negative variation (CNV) were recorded in a paradigm of delayed response with feedback for three kinds of faces: familiar, strange and target. Subjects made responses to the faces according to whether the faces were familiar or not, but also, gave deliberately deceptive responses to target faces to 'cheat the computer'. Subjects(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To study whether intravascular or hemodynamic factors contribute to the marked neuroprotective effect of albumin therapy in focal cerebral ischemia, 2 complementary methods were applied: laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and laser-Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI). METHODS In the LSCM study, Sprague-Dawley rats were(More)
Excitotoxic neuronal damage caused by overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs) is thought to be a principal cause of neuronal loss after stroke and brain trauma. Here we report that activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) transcription factor in affected neurons is an essential step in NMDAR-mediated(More)
Human albumin therapy is highly neuroprotective in focal cerebral ischemia. Because albumin is the main carrier of free fatty acids (FFA) in plasma, we investigated the content and composition of plasma FFA in jugular vein (JV), femoral artery (FA) and femoral vein (FV) of rats given intravenous human albumin (1.25 g/kg) or saline vehicle (5 mL/kg) 1 h(More)
BACKGROUND Medicinal plants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet) have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Postsynaptic density-95 inhibitors reduce ischemic brain damage without inhibiting excitatory neurotransmission, circumventing the negative consequences of glutamatergic inhibition. However, their efficacy in permanent ischemia and in providing permanent neuroprotection and neurobehavioral improvement in a practical therapeutic window(More)
An enriched environment has been shown to improve cognitive, behavioral and histopathological outcome after focal cerebral ischemia and head trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an enriched environment on histopathology following global cerebral ischemia. Wistar rats (21 weeks of age) were placed in different environments(More)