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PrPC is a host protein anchored to the outer surface of neurons and to a lesser extent of lymphocytes and other cells. The transmissible agent (prion) responsible for scrapie is believed to be a modified form of PrPC. Mice homozygous for disrupted PrP genes have been generated. Surprisingly, they develop and behave normally for at least seven months, and no(More)
Using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, we have generated mice with a null mutation in the gene encoding the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a recognition molecule implicated in myelin formation. MAG-deficient mice appeared normal in motor coordination and spatial learning tasks. Normal myelin structure and nerve conduction in the PNS,(More)
Tenascin-R (TN-R), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein of the CNS, localizes to nodes of Ranvier and perineuronal nets and interacts in vitro with other extracellular matrix components and recognition molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily. To characterize the functional roles of TN-R in vivo, we have generated mice deficient for TN-R by homologous(More)
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF), jointly referring to TNF alpha and TNF beta, is a central mediator of immune and inflammatory responses; its activities are mediated by two distinct receptors, TNFR1 (p55) and TNFR2 (p75) (reviewed in refs 1-3). The cytoplasmic domains of the TNFRs are unrelated, suggesting that they link to different intracellular signalling(More)
Vigilance, anxiety, epileptic activity, and muscle tone can be modulated by drugs acting at the benzodiazepine (BZ) site of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. In vivo, BZ sites are potential targets for endogenous ligands regulating the corresponding central nervous system states. To assess the physiological relevance of BZ sites, mice were(More)
Brain recordings in large animal models and humans typically rely on a tethered connection, which has restricted the spectrum of accessible experimental and clinical applications. To overcome this limitation, we have engineered a compact, lightweight, high data rate wireless neurosensor capable of recording the full spectrum of electrophysiological signals(More)
Have you ever imagined that you could play an internet game against an animal like a rat? How would you feel if you lose? In the present study, we have developed an internet game driven by and linked to a brain-computer interface (BCI) system. The BCI system translated real-time neuronal activities from prefrontal cortex (PFC), or hippocampaus (CA1) of a(More)
This paper presents a novel method for inferring the odor based on neural activities observed from rats' main olfactory bulbs. Multichannel extracellular single unit recordings were done by microwire electrodes (tungsten, 50 μm, 32 channels) implanted in the mitral/tufted cell layers of the main olfactory bulb of anesthetized rats to obtain neural responses(More)
This paper presents a novel method for inferring the odor based on neural activities observed from rats' main olfactory bulbs. Multi-channel extra-cellular single unit recordings were done by micro-wire electrodes (tungsten, 50μm, 32 channels) implanted in the mitral/tufted cell layers of the main olfactory bulb of anesthetized rats to obtain neural(More)
As the needs of disabled patients are increasingly recognized in society, researchers have begun to use single neuron activity to construct brain-computer interfaces (BCI), designed to facilitate the daily lives of individuals with physical disabilities. BCI systems typically allow users to control computer programs or external devices via signals produced(More)
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