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Bacterial populations produce persister cells that neither grow nor die in the presence of microbicidal antibiotics. Persisters are largely responsible for high levels of biofilm tolerance to antimicrobials, but virtually nothing was known about their biology. Tolerance of Escherichia coli to ampicillin and ofloxacin was tested at different growth stages to(More)
Horizontal gene transfer plays a major role in microbial evolution. However, newly acquired sequences can decrease fitness unless integrated into preexisting regulatory networks. We found that the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) selectively silences horizontally acquired genes by targeting sequences with GC content lower than the resident(More)
Extracting the protocol message format specifications of unknown applications from network traces is important for a variety of applications such as application protocol parsing, vulnerability discovery, and system integration. In this paper, we propose ProDecoder, a network trace based protocol message format inference system that exploits the semantics of(More)
Modulating the tau level may represent a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD), as accumulating evidence shows that Abeta-induced neurodegeneration is mediated by tau. It is therefore important to understand the expression and degradation of tau in neurons. Recently we showed that overexpressed mutant tau and tau aggregates are degraded via the(More)
BACKGROUND Cathelicidins are a family of antimicrobial peptides acting as multifunctional effector molecules of innate immunity, which are firstly found in mammalians. Recently, several cathelicidins have also been found from chickens and fishes. No cathelicidins from other non-mammalian vertebrates have been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this work, a(More)
Application-level protocol specifications (i.e., how a protocol should behave) are helpful for network security management, including intrusion detection and intrusion prevention. The knowledge of protocol specifications is also an effective way of detecting malicious code. However, current methods for obtaining unknown protocol specifications highly rely(More)
Most current microarray oligonucleotide probe design strategies are based on probe design factors (PDFs), which include probe hybridization free energy (PHFE), probe minimum folding energy (PMFE), dimer score, hairpin score, homology score and complexity score. The impact of these PDFs on probe performance was evaluated using four sets of microarray(More)
Application-level protocol specifications are helpful for network security management, including intrusion detection and intrusion prevention which rely on monitoring technologies such as deep packet inspection. Moreover, detailed knowledge of protocol specifications is also an effective way of detecting malicious code. However, current methods for(More)