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Bacterial populations produce persister cells that neither grow nor die in the presence of microbicidal antibiotics. Persisters are largely responsible for high levels of biofilm tolerance to antimicrobials, but virtually nothing was known about their biology. Tolerance of Escherichia coli to ampicillin and ofloxacin was tested at different growth stages to(More)
Horizontal gene transfer plays a major role in microbial evolution. However, newly acquired sequences can decrease fitness unless integrated into preexisting regulatory networks. We found that the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) selectively silences horizontally acquired genes by targeting sequences with GC content lower than the resident(More)
Extracting the protocol message format specifications of unknown applications from network traces is important for a variety of applications such as application protocol parsing, vulnerability discovery, and system integration. In this paper, we propose ProDecoder, a network trace based protocol message format inference system that exploits the semantics of(More)
The NH2-terminal Jun kinases (JNKs) function in diverse roles through phosphorylation and activation of AP-1 components including ATF2 and c-Jun. However, the genes that mediate these processes are poorly understood. A model phenotype characterized by rapid activation of Jun kinase and enhanced DNA repair following cisplatin treatment was examined using(More)
The abnormal aggregation of tau protein into paired helical filaments (PHFs) is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Aggregation takes place in the cytoplasm and could therefore be cytotoxic for neurons. To find inhibitors of PHF aggregation we screened a library of 200,000 compounds. The hits found in the PHF inhibition assay were also tested for(More)
Modulating the tau level may represent a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD), as accumulating evidence shows that Abeta-induced neurodegeneration is mediated by tau. It is therefore important to understand the expression and degradation of tau in neurons. Recently we showed that overexpressed mutant tau and tau aggregates are degraded via the(More)
We generated several cell models of tauopathy in order to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in diseases involving abnormal changes of tau protein. N2a neuroblastoma cell lines were created that inducibly express different variants of the repeat domain of tau (tau(RD)) when exposed to doxycycline (Tet-On system). The following three constructs were(More)
BACKGROUND Cathelicidins are a family of antimicrobial peptides acting as multifunctional effector molecules of innate immunity, which are firstly found in mammalians. Recently, several cathelicidins have also been found from chickens and fishes. No cathelicidins from other non-mammalian vertebrates have been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this work, a(More)
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that has a role in stabilizing neuronal microtubules and thus in promoting axonal outgrowth. Structurally, tau is a natively unfolded protein, is highly soluble and shows little tendency for aggregation. However, tau aggregation is characteristic of several neurodegenerative diseases known as tauopathies. The(More)
Myc activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatoblastoma (HB), a rare embryonal neoplasm derived from liver progenitor cells. Here, microRNA (miR) expression profiling of 65 HBs evidenced differential patterns related to developmental stage and Myc activity. Undifferentiated aggressive HBs overexpressed the miR-371-3 cluster with concomitant(More)