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A hallmark of cell-surface processes involving glycans is their multivalent interaction with glycan binding proteins (GBPs). Such a multivalent interaction depends critically on the mobility and density of signaling molecules on the membrane surface. While glycan microarrays have been used in exploring multivalent interactions, the lack of mobility and the(More)
Stepping stone attacks are often used by network intruders to hide their identities. The Round Trip Times (RTT) between the send packets and corresponding echo packets for the connection chains of stepping stones are critical for detecting such attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel real-time RTT getting algorithm for stepping stones which is based on(More)
Research on worm propagation has been conducted for over a decade. However, traditional models overestimate the scale of the infected network that leads to propagation errors because of limited and inaccurate analysis of the propagation procedure between each pair of nodes in the network. This paper studies the propagation mechanism of the two main classes(More)
As drug delivery, therapy, and medical imaging are becoming increasingly cell-specific, there is a critical need for high fidelity and high-throughput screening methods for cell surface interactions. Cell membrane-mimicking surfaces, i.e., supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), are currently not sufficiently robust to meet this need. Here we describe a method of(More)
Protein molecules on solid surfaces are essential to a number of applications, such as biosensors, biomaterials, and drug delivery. In most approaches for protein immobilization, inter-molecular distances on the solid surface are not controlled and this may lead to aggregation and crowding. Here, a simple approach to immobilize individual protein molecules(More)
Each year, large amounts of money and labor are spent on patching the vulnerabilities in operating systems and various popular software to prevent exploitation by worms. Modeling the propagation process can help us to devise effective strategies against those worms’ spreading. This paper presents a microcosmic analysis of worm propagation procedures. Our(More)
Keeping protein molecules in the active state on a solid surface is essential to protein microarrays and other protein-based biosensors. Here, we show that the 2-D chemical environment controls the refolding of the denatured green fluorescent proteins tethered to solid surfaces. Refolding occurs readily on the repulsive PEG functionalized surface but is(More)
Active Peer-to-Peer worms are great threat to the network security since they can propagate in automated ways and flood the Internet within a very short duration. Modeling a propagation process can help us to devise effective strategies against a worm’s spread. This paper presents a study on modeling a worm’s propagation probability in a P2P overlay network(More)