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MADS genes in plants encode key developmental regulators of vegetative and reproductive development. The majority of well-characterized plant MADS proteins contain two conserved domains, the DNA-binding MADS domain and the K domain. The K domain is predicted to form three amphipathic alpha-helices referred to as K1, K2, and K3. In this report, we define(More)
Abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction has been proposed to utilize cytosolic Ca(2+) in guard cell ion channel regulation. However, genetic mutants in Ca(2+) sensors that impair guard cell or plant ion channel signaling responses have not been identified, and whether Ca(2+)-independent ABA signaling mechanisms suffice for a full response remains unclear.(More)
The MADS proteins APETALA3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI), SEPALLATAI (SEPI), SEP2, SEP3, AGAMOUS, and APETALA are required for proper floral organ identity in Arabidopsis flowers. All of these floral MADS proteins conserve two domains: the MADS domain that mediates DNA binding and dimerization, and the K domain that mediates protein protein interaction. The K(More)
A common limitation in guard cell signaling research is that it is difficult to obtain consistent high expression of transgenes of interest in Arabidopsis guard cells using known guard cell promoters or the constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. An additional drawback of the 35S promoter is that ectopically expressing a gene throughout the(More)
The Arabidopsis floral organ identity genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) encode related DNA-binding proteins of the MADS family. Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that a heterodimer of AP3 and PI is an essential component of B class activity. All ap3 and pi alleles characterized to date exhibit equivalent phenotypic defects in both whorls(More)
Interactions between membrane proteins and the soluble fraction are essential for signal transduction and for regulating nutrient transport. To gain insights into the membrane-based interactome, 3,852 open reading frames (ORFs) out of a target list of 8,383 representing membrane and signaling proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana were cloned into a(More)
Deep learning has been successfully applied to image super resolution (SR). In this paper, we propose a deep joint super resolution (DJSR) model to exploit both external and self similarities for SR. A Stacked Denoising Convolutional Auto Encoder (SDCAE) is first pre-trained on external examples with proper data augmentations. It is then fine-tuned with(More)
Stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid depends on mechanisms that are mediated by intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i), and also on mechanisms that are independent of [Ca2+]i in guard cells. In this study, we addressed three important questions with respect to these two predicted pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. (i) How large is the relative abscisic acid(More)
The B-class genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and their orthologs in other species have been the focus of studies to elucidate the development of petals and stamens in angiosperm flowers. Evolutionary analysis indicates that B-class genes have undergone multiple gene duplication events in angiosperms. The(More)
Visual recognition research often assumes a sufficient resolution of the region of interest (ROI). That is usually violated in practice, inspiring us to explore the Very Low Resolution Recognition (VLRR) problem. Typically, the ROI in a VLRR problem can be smaller than 16 16 pixels, and is challenging to be recognized even by human experts. We attempt to(More)