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Abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction has been proposed to utilize cytosolic Ca(2+) in guard cell ion channel regulation. However, genetic mutants in Ca(2+) sensors that impair guard cell or plant ion channel signaling responses have not been identified, and whether Ca(2+)-independent ABA signaling mechanisms suffice for a full response remains unclear.(More)
BACKGROUND A common limitation in guard cell signaling research is that it is difficult to obtain consistent high expression of transgenes of interest in Arabidopsis guard cells using known guard cell promoters or the constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. An additional drawback of the 35S promoter is that ectopically expressing a gene(More)
Interactions between membrane proteins and the soluble fraction are essential for signal transduction and for regulating nutrient transport. To gain insights into the membrane-based interactome, 3,852 open reading frames (ORFs) out of a target list of 8,383 representing membrane and signaling proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana were cloned into a(More)
This paper presents a new photo browsing technique , dynamic collage. Although previous photo collage techniques have innate advantages for viewing several photos collectively, they only focus on a static two-dimensional arrangement of photos so that the scalability is limited. In dynamic collage, new photos are incrementally inserted into the collage one(More)
—We study the complementary behaviors of external and internal examples in image restoration, and are motivated to formulate a composite dictionary design framework. The composite dictionary consists of the global part learned from external examples, and the sample-specific part learned from internal examples. The dictionary atoms in both parts are further(More)
Visual recognition research often assumes a sufficient resolution of the region of interest (ROI). That is usually violated in practical scenarios, inspiring us to explore the general Very Low Resolution Recognition (VLRR) problem. Typically, the ROI in a VLRR problem can be smaller than 16 × 16 pixels, and is challenging to be recognized even by human(More)
In this paper, we design a Deep Dual-Domain (D 3) based fast restoration model to remove artifacts of JPEG compressed images. It leverages the large learning capacity of deep networks, as well as the problem-specific expertise that was hardly incorporated in the past design of deep architectures. For the latter, we take into consideration both the prior(More)
1-Graph has been proven to be effective in data clustering , which partitions the data space by using the sparse representation of the data as the similarity measure. However, the sparse representation is performed for each datum separately without taking into account the geometric structure of the data. Motivated by 1-Graph and manifold leaning, we propose(More)
Single image super-resolution (SR) aims to estimate a high-resolution (HR) image from a low-resolution (LR) input. Image priors are commonly learned to regularize the, otherwise, seriously ill-posed SR problem, either using external LR-HR pairs or internal similar patterns. We propose joint SR to adaptively combine the advantages of both external and(More)
Background—There are still discrepancies in the association of enterovirus and myocardial disease, partially due to lack of data on the detection of virus antigens in tissues. It is desirable to localize enteroviral antigens so as to establish a link between the two and to study mechanisms of virus persistence. Methods and Results—Nineteen fixed explanted(More)