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We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 has been shown to be a key regulator of gene expression during the onset of a plant disease-resistance response known as systemic acquired resistance. The npr1 mutant plants fail to respond to systemic acquired resistance-inducing signals such as salicylic acid (SA), or express SA-induced pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Using(More)
In genetic screens for new endocytosis genes in Caenorhabditis elegans we identified RME-1, a member of a conserved class of Eps15-homology (EH)-domain proteins. Here we show that RME-1 is associated with the periphery of endocytic organelles, which is consistent with a direct role in endocytic transport. Endocytic defects in rme-1 mutants indicate that the(More)
Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder in which familial-linked genes have provided novel insights into the pathogenesis of this disorder. Mutations in Parkin, a ring-finger-containing protein of unknown function, are implicated in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease. Here, we show that Parkin binds to(More)
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people in the United States. It is a complex disease whose etiology bridges biomechanics and biochemistry. Evidence is growing for the role of systemic factors (such as genetics, dietary intake, estrogen use, and bone density) and of local biomechanical factors (such as muscle(More)
Nicastrin, a transmembrane glycoprotein, forms high molecular weight complexes with presenilin 1 and presenilin 2. Suppression of nicastrin expression in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos induces a subset of notch/glp-1 phenotypes similar to those induced by simultaneous null mutations in both presenilin homologues of C. elegans (sel-12 and hop-1). Nicastrin(More)
Soil acidification is a major problem in soils of intensive Chinese agricultural systems. We used two nationwide surveys, paired comparisons in numerous individual sites, and several long-term monitoring-field data sets to evaluate changes in soil acidity. Soil pH declined significantly (P < 0.001) from the 1980s to the 2000s in the major Chinese(More)
TRAPP is a conserved protein complex required early in the secretory pathway. Here, we report two forms of TRAPP, TRAPP I and TRAPP II, that mediate different transport events. Using chemically pure TRAPP I and COPII vesicles, we have reconstituted vesicle targeting in vitro. The binding of COPII vesicles to TRAPP I is specific, blocked by GTPgammaS, and,(More)
The Arabidopsis NPR1 protein is an essential regulatory component of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Mutations in the NPR1 gene completely block the induction of SAR by signals such as salicylic acid (SA). An Arabidopsis mutant, snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1), was isolated in a screen for suppressors of npr1-1. In the npr1-1 background, the(More)
BACKGROUND Dermatomyositis and polymyositis are associated with cancer, but previous nationwide studies have not had sufficient cases to test the association between myositis and specific cancer types. Our aim was to investigate the risk of specific cancer types in individuals with dermatomyositis and polymyositis. METHODS We did a pooled analysis of(More)