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This paper explores the multi-dimensional design space for chip multiprocessors, exploring the inter-related variables of core count, pipeline depth, superscalar width, L2 cache size, and operating voltage and frequency, under various area and thermal constraints. The results show the importance of joint optimization. Thermal constraints dominate other(More)
Simultaneous multithreading (SMT) and chip multiprocessing (CMP) both allow a chip to achieve greater throughput, but their relative energy-efficiency and thermal properties are still poorly understood. This paper uses Turandot, PowerTimer, and HotSpot to explore this design space for a POWER4/POWER5-like core. For an equal-area comparison with this style(More)
This paper compares the effectiveness of state-preserving and non-state-preserving techniques for leakage control in caches by comparing drowsy cache and gated-Vss for data caches using 70nm technology parameters. To perform the comparison, we introduce "HotLeakage", a new architectural model for subthreshold and gate leakage that explicitly models the(More)
This paper describes a thermal-modeling approach that is easy to use and computationally efficient for modeling thermal effects and thermal-management techniques at the processor architecture level. Our approach models thermal behavior of the die and its package as a circuit of thermal resistances and capacitances that correspond to functional blocks at the(More)
Simultaneous multithreading (SMT) has proven to be an effective method of increasing the performance of microprocessors by extracting additional instruction-level parallelism from multiple threads. In current microprocessor designs, power-efficiency is of critical importance, and we present modeling extensions to an architectural simulator to allow us to(More)
BACKGROUND Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a highly predictive biomarker of acute kidney injury. To understand the role of NGAL in renal injury during sepsis, we investigated the temporal changes and biological sources of NGAL in a rat model of acute kidney injury, and explored the relationship between renal inflammation, humoral NGAL(More)
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is critical to mediating the body's response to stress. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role in controlling the stress response and regulating the HPA axis. Recent findings support CRH participates in the stress-induced hippocampal neuron apoptosis, but the underlying mechanisms are not(More)
Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The thioredoxin (TRX) system, a major thiol antioxidant system, regulates the reduction of intracellular ROS. Here we show that high glucose (HG) inhibits TRX ROS-scavenging function through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated induction of(More)
BACKGROUND Sudden cardiac death resulting from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) constitutes a significant percentage of the caseload for forensic and clinical pathologists. When sudden death occurs at an early stage (<6 h), pathologists experience difficulty in the postmortem diagnosis of AMI. Because of the specific tissue distribution of S100A1 and its(More)