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Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a major microvascular complication of diabetes, has a significant impact on the world's health systems. Globally, the number of people with DR will grow from 126.6 million in 2010 to 191.0 million by 2030, and we estimate that the number with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) will increase from 37.3 million to 56.3(More)
BACKGROUND The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with(More)
BACKGROUND The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether(More)
PURPOSE To assess the prevalence and mechanism of glaucoma in adults living in an urban area of southern China. METHODS Random clustering sampling was used to identify adults aged 50 years and over in Liwan District, Guangzhou. Glaucoma was diagnosed with the ISGEO (International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology) classification(More)
Damage to the optic nerve (e.g. from glaucoma) has an adverse and often irreversible impact on vision. Earlier studies have suggested that the size of the optic nerve head could be governed by hereditary factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 4445 Singaporean individuals (n = 2132 of Indian and n = 2313 of Malay ancestry,(More)
PURPOSE To assess the prevalence of refractive error and describe the distribution of ocular biometry and its association with refraction in adult Chinese. METHODS Random clustering sampling was used to identify adults aged > or = 50 years in Liwan District, Guangzhou. Refraction was determined by subjective refraction that achieved the best corrected(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR) affect the performance of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II (HRT II; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) algorithms for glaucoma detection. METHODS This population-based survey was conducted among Malays in Singapore who were a 40 to 80 years of age. Diabetes was defined as(More)
BACKGROUND China has experienced a remarkable epidemiological and demographic transition during the past three decades. Far less is known about this transition at the subnational level. Timely and accurate assessment of the provincial burden of disease is needed for evidence-based priority setting at the local level in China. METHODS Following the methods(More)
PURPOSE. To describe the distribution of ocular perfusion pressure and its relationship with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in a Malay population. METHODS. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study comprising 3280 (78.7% response) ethnic Malays. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometry. Systolic and diastolic blood(More)
As one of the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness, myopia poses a significant public health burden in Asia. The primary determinant of myopia is an elongated ocular axial length (AL). Here we report a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies on AL conducted in 1,860 Chinese adults, 929 Chinese children, and 2,155 Malay adults. We(More)