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BACKGROUND The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with(More)
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a major microvascular complication of diabetes, has a significant impact on the world's health systems. Globally, the number of people with DR will grow from 126.6 million in 2010 to 191.0 million by 2030, and we estimate that the number with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) will increase from 37.3 million to 56.3(More)
BACKGROUND The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship of retinal vascular tortuosity to age, blood pressure, and other cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS A total of 3280 participants aged 40 to 80 years from the Singapore Malay Eye Study (78.7% response rate). METHODS Retinal arteriolar and venular (vascular)(More)
PURPOSE To assess the prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in school children in a rural area of southern China. DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS Two thousand four hundred children from junior high schools in Yangxi County. METHODS Random selection of classes from the 3 junior high school grade levels was used to(More)
PURPOSE To assess the prevalence and mechanism of glaucoma in adults living in an urban area of southern China. METHODS Random clustering sampling was used to identify adults aged 50 years and over in Liwan District, Guangzhou. Glaucoma was diagnosed with the ISGEO (International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology) classification(More)
Both the Notch-signaling pathway and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) cascade are involved in a wide variety of biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and tumorigenesis. Their dysregulation in recent studies have been shown to be associated with glioma formation. Here, we show that transforming growth factor-alpha(More)
PURPOSE To describe the distribution of central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and their determinants and association with glaucoma in Chinese adults. DESIGN Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS Chinese adults aged 50 years and older were identified using cluster random sampling in Liwan District, Guangzhou. CCT (both(More)
Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, combining 12,531 Europeans and 8,216 Asians. We identified eight genome-wide significant loci for AL(More)
PURPOSE To assess the prevalence of refractive error and describe the distribution of ocular biometry and its association with refraction in adult Chinese. METHODS Random clustering sampling was used to identify adults aged > or = 50 years in Liwan District, Guangzhou. Refraction was determined by subjective refraction that achieved the best corrected(More)