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Glial cell response to injury has been well documented in the pathogenesis after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Although microglia, the resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS), are responsible for clearing debris and toxic substances, excessive activation of these cells will lead to exacerbated secondary damage(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers a series of endogenous processes, including neuroinflammation and reactive astrogliosis, which may contribute to the failure of neural regeneration and functional recovery. In the present study, the effect of ethyl pyruvate on spinal cord repair was explored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Functional(More)
The major challenge for progressive multiple sclerosis therapy is the promotion of remyelination from inflammation-induced demyelination. A switch from an M1- to an M2-dominant polarization of microglia is critical in these repair processes. In this study, we identified the homeobox gene msh-like homeobox-3 (Msx3) as a new pivotal regulator for microglial(More)
The olfactory system is an unusual tissue in which olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are continuously replaced throughout the life of mammals. Clearance of the apoptotic ORNs corpses is a fundamental process serving important functions in the regulation of olfactory nerve turnover and regeneration. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms.(More)
Recruitment of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to the lesions is the most important event for remyelination after central nervous system (CNS) injury or in demyelinating diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. In the present study, we found high concentrations of ATP could increase the number of migrating OPCs(More)
Excessive apoptosis and high expression levels of interleukin‑1β (IL‑1β) in disc cells have been reported to serve important roles in intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). Previous studies investigating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have indicated potential for their use in the treatment of IVDD. However, the therapeutic potential and anti‑apoptotic(More)
UNLABELLED T-helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune demyelinating disease that affects the CNS. In the present study, MicroRNA sequencing (miRNA-seq) was performed in mouse Th0 and Th17 cells to determine the critical miRNAs that are related to Th17 differentiation. We found that miR-30a(More)
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) differentiation failure is one of the leading causes for remyelination defects in the demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we explored the roles of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 7 (IGFBP-7) on OPCs differentiation during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We first(More)
BACKGROUND Our understanding of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has changed enormously over the past 30 years, from a waterborne infection causing outbreaks of acute hepatitis in developing countries to an infection of global distribution causing a range of hepatic and extra-hepatic illness. However, the key proteins playing important parts in the virus infection(More)
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