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The median survival time of breast cancer patients with brain metastasis is less than 6 months, and even a small metastatic lesion often causes severe neurological disabilities. Because of the location of metastatic lesions, a surgical approach is limited and most chemotherapeutic drugs are ineffective owing to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Despite this(More)
Infection with the human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) is associated with a range of outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection, to the development of HAM/TSP and adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Pathogenesis of these disorders involves complex interactions with the host immune system. Our previous studies showed that phorbol ester (PMA) and T cell(More)
Unlike T cells restricted by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ia or class II molecules, T cells restricted by MHC class I-like molecules demonstrate properties of both innate and adaptive immunity and are therefore considered innate-like lymphocytes (ILLs). ILLs are believed to have immunoregulatory functions, but their roles in autoimmunity and(More)
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