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IDH1 and IDH2 mutations occur frequently in gliomas and acute myeloid leukemia, leading to simultaneous loss and gain of activities in the production of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), respectively. Here we demonstrate that 2-HG is a competitive inhibitor of multiple α-KG-dependent dioxygenases, including histone demethylases and the(More)
We report here that fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) has efficient oxidative demethylation activity targeting the abundant N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) residues in RNA in vitro. FTO knockdown with siRNA led to increased amounts of m(6)A in mRNA, whereas overexpression of FTO resulted in decreased amounts of m(6)A in human cells. We further show(More)
Measurement of population activity with single-action-potential, single-neuron resolution is pivotal for understanding information representation and processing in the brain and how the brain's responses are altered by experience. Genetically encoded indicators of neuronal activity allow long-term, cell type-specific expression. Fluorescent Ca2+ indicator(More)
The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system, derived from teleost fish sequences, is extremely effective at delivering DNA to vertebrate genomes, including those of humans. We have examined several parameters of the SB system to improve it as a potential, nonviral vector for gene therapy. Our investigation centered on three features: the carrying capacity of(More)
The methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3)-containing methyltransferase complex catalyzes the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) formation, a novel epitranscriptomic marker; however, the nature of this complex remains largely unknown. Here we report two new components of the human m6A methyltransferase complex, Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein (WTAP) and(More)
The homeobox gene Prox1 is crucial for mammalian lymphatic vascular development. In the absence of Prox1, lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are not specified. The maintenance of LEC identity also requires the constant expression of Prox1. However, the mechanisms controlling the expression of this gene in LECs remain poorly understood. The SRY-related gene(More)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major clinical problem in which a critical vascular, pathophysiological component is recognized. We demonstrated previously that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), unlike fibroblasts, are significantly renoprotective after ischemia-reperfusion injury and concluded that this renoprotection is mediated primarily by paracrine(More)
Glycine is a major amino acid in mammals and other animals. It is synthesized from serine, threonine, choline, and hydroxyproline via inter-organ metabolism involving primarily the liver and kidneys. Under normal feeding conditions, glycine is not adequately synthesized in birds or in other animals, particularly in a diseased state. Glycine degradation(More)
EPAC proteins are the guanine nucleotide exchange factors that act as the intracellular receptors for cyclic AMP. Two variants of EPAC genes including EPAC1 and EPAC2 are cloned and are widely expressed throughout the brain. But, their functions in the brain remain unknown. Here, we genetically delete EPAC1 (EPAC1(-/-)), EPAC2 (EPAC2(-/-)), or both EPAC1(More)
Hyperphosphorylated tau is the major protein subunit of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies. It is not understood, however, why the neurofibrillary tangle-containing neurons seen in the AD brains do not die of apoptosis but rather degeneration even though they are constantly awash in a proapoptotic environment. Here,(More)