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Adaptive immunity depends on T-cell exit from the thymus and T and B cells travelling between secondary lymphoid organs to survey for antigens. After activation in lymphoid organs, T cells must again return to circulation to reach sites of infection; however, the mechanisms regulating lymphoid organ exit are unknown. An immunosuppressant drug, FTY720,(More)
Naive lymphocytes continually enter and exit lymphoid organs in a recirculation process that is essential for immune surveillance. During immune responses, the egress process can be shut down transiently. When this occurs locally it increases lymphocyte numbers in the responding lymphoid organ; when it occurs systemically it can lead to immunosuppression as(More)
Lymphocyte egress from the thymus and from peripheral lymphoid organs depends on sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-1 and is thought to occur in response to circulatory S1P. However, the existence of an S1P gradient between lymphoid organs and blood or lymph has not been established. To further define egress requirements, we addressed why treatment with(More)
This paper presents a novel linear programming approach to do protein 3-dimensional (3D) structure prediction via threading. Based on the contact map graph of the protein 3D structure template, the protein threading problem is formulated as a large scale integer programming (IP) problem. The IP formulation is then relaxed to a linear programming (LP)(More)
Familial advanced sleep phase syndrome (FASPS) is a human behavioural phenotype characterized by early sleep times and early-morning awakening. It was the first human, mendelian circadian rhythm variant to be well-characterized, and was shown to result from a mutation in a phosphorylation site within the casein kinase I (CKI)-binding domain of the human(More)
Lymphocytes require sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-1 to exit lymphoid organs, but the source(s) of extracellular S1P and whether S1P directly promotes egress are unknown. By using mice in which the two kinases that generate S1P were conditionally ablated, we find that plasma S1P is mainly hematopoietic in origin, with erythrocytes a major(More)
Changes in gene expression levels determine differentiation of tissues involved in development and are associated with functional decline in aging. Although development is tightly regulated, the transition between development and aging, as well as regulation of post-developmental changes, are not well understood. Here, we measured messenger RNA (mRNA),(More)
Biclustering extends the traditional clustering techniques by attempting to find (all) subgroups of genes with similar expression patterns under to-be-identified subsets of experimental conditions when applied to gene expression data. Still the real power of this clustering strategy is yet to be fully realized due to the lack of effective and efficient(More)
Systematic dissection of the sumoylation proteome is emerging as an appealing but challenging research topic because of the significant roles sumoylation plays in cellular dynamics and plasticity. Although several proteome-scale analyzes have been performed to delineate potential sumoylatable proteins, the bona fide sumoylation sites still remain to be(More)
We present a database DOOR (Database for prOkaryotic OpeRons) containing computationally predicted operons of all the sequenced prokaryotic genomes. All the operons in DOOR are predicted using our own prediction program, which was ranked to be the best among 14 operon prediction programs by a recent independent review. Currently, the DOOR database contains(More)