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Rodents move their whiskers to locate and identify objects. Cortical areas involved in vibrissal somatosensation and sensorimotor integration include the vibrissal area of the primary motor cortex (vM1), primary somatosensory cortex (vS1; barrel cortex), and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2). We mapped local excitatory pathways in each area across all(More)
Cortical neurons form specific circuits, but the functional structure of this microarchitecture and its relation to behaviour are poorly understood. Two-photon calcium imaging can monitor activity of spatially defined neuronal ensembles in the mammalian cortex. Here we applied this technique to the motor cortex of mice performing a choice behaviour.(More)
BACKGROUND Crofton weed (Ageratina adenophora) is one of the most hazardous invasive plant species, which causes serious economic losses and environmental damages worldwide. However, the sequence resource and genome information of A. adenophora are rather limited, making phylogenetic identification and evolutionary studies very difficult. Here, we report(More)
Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes one of the most serious viral diseases of rice (Oryza sativa L.), but the molecular basis of RSV resistance has remained elusive. Here we show that the resistant allele of rice STV11 (STV11-R) encodes a sulfotransferase (OsSOT1) catalysing the conversion of salicylic acid (SA) into sulphonated SA (SSA), whereas the gene(More)
In an effort to expand the use of ferrets as models for genetic disease, several experimental parameters that are required for successful genetic manipulation in this species were investigated. Optimum superovulation (19.3 +/- 0.6 oocytes and embryos per female) was achieved after injections of 100 iu equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) and 150 iu human(More)
Rice stripe disease, caused by rice stripe virus (RSV), is one of the most serious diseases in temperate rice-growing areas. In the present study, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for RSV resistance using 98 backcross inbred lines derived from the cross between the highly resistant variety, Kasalath, and the highly susceptible variety,(More)
Mechanisms to safely eliminate amyloids and preamyloid oligomers associated with many devastating diseases are urgently needed. Biophysical principles dictate that small molecules are unlikely to perturb large intermolecular protein-protein interfaces, let alone extraordinarily stable amyloid interfaces. Yet 4,5-dianilinophthalimide (DAPH-1) reverses(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37 amino-acid peptide, which is widely distributed in peripheral and central nervous system. There are two types of CGRP receptors, CGRP receptor 1 and CGRP receptor 2. It is known that CGRP plays important roles in multiple physiological processes. Studies demonstrate that CGRP and CGRP receptors are involved in(More)
Heterosis is a phenomenon in which hybrids exhibit superior performance relative to parental phenotypes. In addition to the heterosis of above-ground agronomic traits on which most existing studies have focused, root heterosis is also an indispensable component of heterosis in the entire plant and of major importance to plant breeding. Consequently,(More)
The hydrolysis of O-arylphosphorothioates by protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) was studied with the aim of providing a mechanistic framework for the reactions of this important class of substrate analogues. O-arylphosphorothioates are hydrolyzed 2 to 3 orders of magnitude slower than O-aryl phosphates by PTPases. This is in contrast to the solution(More)