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Miniature neurotransmission is the transsynaptic process where single synaptic vesicles spontaneously released from presynaptic neurons induce miniature postsynaptic potentials. Since their discovery over 60 years ago, miniature events have been found at every chemical synapse studied. However, the in vivo necessity for these small-amplitude events has(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by a progressive loss of neurons in the striatum and cerebral cortex and is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the gene encoding huntingtin. Mice with the mutation inserted into their own huntingtin gene (knock-in mice) are, genetically, the best models of the human disease. Here we show for the first time that(More)
AIM Na+-activated K+ (K(Na)) channels set and stabilize resting membrane potential in rat small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. However, whether K(Na) channels play the same role in other size DRG neurons is still elusive. The aim of this study is to identify the existence and potential physiological functions of K(Na) channels in medium diameter (25-35(More)
This paper studies carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation in the uplink of multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Conventional maximum likelihood estimator requires computational complexity that increases exponentially with the number of users. To reduce the complexity, we propose a(More)
BACKGROUND Dupuytren's Disease (DD) is a debilitating contractile fibrosis of the palmar fascia characterised by excess collagen deposition, contractile myofibroblast development, increased transforming growth factor-beta levels and beta-catenin accumulation. The aim of this study was to determine if a collagen-enriched environment, similar to in vivo(More)
Interleukin (IL)-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine with pleiotropic effects in inflammation. IL-1 binding to its receptor triggers a cascade of signaling events, including activation of the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase, as well as transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB(More)
We compare filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) in the uplink of a multiple access network. Our study reveals that the high sensitivity of OFDM to carrier frequency offset (CFO) among different users and the need for interference cancellation methods to reduce this sensitivity leads to very complex and yet(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Substantial evidence indicates that inflammation is a critical component of tumor progression. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually derived from inflamed cirrhotic liver with extensive leukocyte infiltration. Neutrophils are the common inflammatory infiltrate in tumors, but their nature and regulation in human cancers remain elusive.(More)
SMAD proteins are downstream signal transducers of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, which serve as pleiotropic regulators in embryonic and adult hematopoiesis. SMAD5, initially considered to mediate bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signals, can also transduce the inhibitory signal of TGF-beta1 on proliferation of hematopoietic(More)
The larval neuromuscular synapse of Drosophila serves as an important model for genetic and molecular analysis of synaptic development and function. Further functional characterization of this synapse, as well as adult neuromuscular synapses, will greatly enhance the impact of this model system on our understanding of synaptic transmission. Here we describe(More)