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Somatic embryogenesis requires auxin and establishment of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). WUSCHEL (WUS) is critical for stem cell fate determination in the SAM of higher plants. However, regulation of WUS expression by auxin during somatic embryogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that expression of several regulatory genes important in zygotic(More)
Current models of stem cell biology assume that normal and neoplastic stem cells reside at the apices of hierarchies and differentiate into nonstem progeny in a unidirectional manner. Here we identify a subpopulation of basal-like human mammary epithelial cells that departs from that assumption, spontaneously dedifferentiating into stem-like cells.(More)
—A 128-bit, 1.6 pJ/bit, 96% stable chip ID generation circuit utilizing process variations is designed in a 0.13 m CMOS process. The circuit consumes 162 nW from a 1 V supply at low readout frequencies and 1.6 W at 1 Mb/s. Cross-coupled logic gates were employed to simultaneously generate, amplify, and digitize the random circuit offset to create a stable(More)
In the molecular scheme of living organisms, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP or cAMP) has been a universal second messenger. In eukaryotic cells, the primary receptors for cAMP are the regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The crystal structure of a 1-91 deletion mutant of the type I alpha regulatory subunit was refined to 2.8 A(More)
Plants have a profound capacity to regenerate organs from differentiated somatic tissues, based on which propagating plants in vitro was made possible. Beside its use in biotechnology, in vitro shoot regeneration is also an important system to study de novo organogenesis. Phytohormones and transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) play critical roles in this(More)
Centrosome amplification has long been recognized as a feature of human tumours; however, its role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Centrosome amplification is poorly tolerated by non-transformed cells and, in the absence of selection, extra centrosomes are spontaneously lost. Thus, the high frequency of centrosome amplification, particularly in more(More)
TGFbeta signaling controls diverse normal developmental processes and pathogenesis of diseases including cancer and autoimmune and fibrotic diseases. TGFbeta responses are generally mediated through transcriptional functions of Smads. A key step in TGFbeta signaling is ligand-induced phosphorylation of receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads) catalyzed by the(More)
Many integrated circuit applications require a unique identification number (ID) on each die that can be read anytime during the lifetime of the chip. A robust read-only ID is important for labeling RFID tags, addressing low-power wireless sensor nodes, IC process quality control, and secure documentation. Traditional methods of writing addresses into ROMs(More)
OBJECTIVES Parasitic Cordyceps fungi, such as Cordyceps sinensis, is a parasitic complex of fungus and caterpillar, which has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries particularly in China, Japan and other Asian countries. This article gives a general idea of the latest developments in C. sinensis research, with regard to the active chemical(More)
Preventing or reducing tau hyperphosphorylation is considered to be a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Rapamycin may be a potential therapeutic agent for AD, because the rapamycin-induced autophagy may enhance the clearance of the hyperphosphorylated tau. However, recent rodent studies show that the protective effect of(More)