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Somatic embryogenesis requires auxin and establishment of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). WUSCHEL (WUS) is critical for stem cell fate determination in the SAM of higher plants. However, regulation of WUS expression by auxin during somatic embryogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that expression of several regulatory genes important in zygotic(More)
—A 128-bit, 1.6 pJ/bit, 96% stable chip ID generation circuit utilizing process variations is designed in a 0.13 m CMOS process. The circuit consumes 162 nW from a 1 V supply at low readout frequencies and 1.6 W at 1 Mb/s. Cross-coupled logic gates were employed to simultaneously generate, amplify, and digitize the random circuit offset to create a stable(More)
Plants have a profound capacity to regenerate organs from differentiated somatic tissues, based on which propagating plants in vitro was made possible. Beside its use in biotechnology, in vitro shoot regeneration is also an important system to study de novo organogenesis. Phytohormones and transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) play critical roles in this(More)
Many integrated circuit applications require a unique identification number (ID) on each die that can be read anytime during the lifetime of the chip. A robust read-only ID is important for labeling RFID tags, addressing low-power wireless sensor nodes, IC process quality control, and secure documentation. Traditional methods of writing addresses into ROMs(More)
TGFbeta signaling controls diverse normal developmental processes and pathogenesis of diseases including cancer and autoimmune and fibrotic diseases. TGFbeta responses are generally mediated through transcriptional functions of Smads. A key step in TGFbeta signaling is ligand-induced phosphorylation of receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads) catalyzed by the(More)
In vitro organogenesis is well-controlled and thus provides an ideal system to study mechanisms of plant organ development. Although it has been well investigated for a long time that exogenous hormones play important roles in determining the types of organs regenerated in vitro, there is currently limited information available for other key factors that(More)
The aim of this study was to observe the location of paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB) in the retina and to evaluate the expressive varieties of PirB in the retina of mice after optic nerve injury. In situ hybridization was used to observe the location of PirB mRNA in the retina of mice. Western blotting was used to analyze the levels of PirB(More)
PURPOSE The axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve (ON) crush was investigated both in vivo and in vitro on Nogo-A/B/C knockout mice. METHODS The study used 20 Nogo-A/B/C knockout mice in the experimental group, and 20 C57BL/6 mice in the control group. Partial ON injury was induced by using a specially designed ON clip to(More)
A distinct type of mental preparation (activity in medial frontal and temporal areas) had been found to facilitate insight problem solving independent of specific problems [25]. In order to explore whether neural activity during a preparatory interval (mental preparation) is associated with which insight problems would be solved or not, we developed a task(More)