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TGFbeta signaling controls diverse normal developmental processes and pathogenesis of diseases including cancer and autoimmune and fibrotic diseases. TGFbeta responses are generally mediated through transcriptional functions of Smads. A key step in TGFbeta signaling is ligand-induced phosphorylation of receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads) catalyzed by the(More)
Somatic embryogenesis requires auxin and establishment of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). WUSCHEL (WUS) is critical for stem cell fate determination in the SAM of higher plants. However, regulation of WUS expression by auxin during somatic embryogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that expression of several regulatory genes important in zygotic(More)
Current models of stem cell biology assume that normal and neoplastic stem cells reside at the apices of hierarchies and differentiate into nonstem progeny in a unidirectional manner. Here we identify a subpopulation of basal-like human mammary epithelial cells that departs from that assumption, spontaneously dedifferentiating into stem-like cells.(More)
A 128-bit, 1.6 pJ/bit, 96% stable chip ID generation circuit utilizing process variations is designed in a 0.13 m CMOS process. The circuit consumes 162 nW from a 1 V supply at low readout frequencies and 1.6 W at 1 Mb/s. Cross-coupled logic gates were employed to simultaneously generate, amplify, and digitize the random circuit offset to create a stable(More)
Many integrated circuit applications require a unique identification number (ID) on each die that can be read anytime during the lifetime of the chip. A robust read-only ID is important for labeling RFID tags, addressing low-power wireless sensor nodes, IC process quality control, and secure documentation. Traditional methods of writing addresses into ROMs(More)
Plants have a profound capacity to regenerate organs from differentiated somatic tissues, based on which propagating plants in vitro was made possible. Beside its use in biotechnology, in vitro shoot regeneration is also an important system to study de novo organogenesis. Phytohormones and transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) play critical roles in this(More)
Nodal proteins, members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily, have been identified as key endogenous mesoderm inducers in vertebrates. Precise control of Nodal signaling is essential for normal development of embryos. Here, we report that zebrafish dapper2 (dpr2) is expressed in mesoderm precursors during early embryogenesis and is(More)
Centrosome amplification has long been recognized as a feature of human tumours; however, its role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Centrosome amplification is poorly tolerated by non-transformed cells and, in the absence of selection, extra centrosomes are spontaneously lost. Thus, the high frequency of centrosome amplification, particularly in more(More)
Somatic embryogenesis is an important experimental model for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms of early embryo development. Although it has long been known that removal of exogenous auxin from medium results in somatic embryogenesis, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of somatic embryos (SEs) are poorly understood. In this study, we showed(More)
Dapper1 and Dapper2, two divergent members of the Dapper family, have been suggested to modulate Wnt and TGF-beta/Nodal signaling in Xenopus and zebrafish. To get a better understanding of Dapper function in mammals, we have cloned the mouse ortholog of zebrafish Dapper2, mDpr2 and investigated its function in regulating TGF-beta signaling activity. Here,(More)