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Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequencing technologies to obtain 72.2-fold genome coverage. The(More)
The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations provide a rapid method of assessing GFR in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, previous research indicated that modification of these equations is necessary for application in Chinese patients with CKD. The objective of this study was to modify MDRD equations on the basis of the(More)
Vitrification is the state-of-the-art specimen preparation technique for molecular electron microscopy (EM) and therefore negative staining may appear to be an outdated approach. In this paper we illustrate the specific advantages of negative staining, ensuring that this technique will remain an important tool for the study of biological macromolecules. Due(More)
Viral infection triggers activation of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB and IRF3, which collaborate to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and elicit innate antiviral response. Here, we identified MITA as a critical mediator of virus-triggered type I IFN signaling by expression cloning. Overexpression of MITA activated IRF3, whereas knockdown of MITA(More)
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the world's most important non-grain food crop and is central to global food security. It is clonally propagated, highly heterozygous, autotetraploid, and suffers acute inbreeding depression. Here we use a homozygous doubled-monoploid potato clone to sequence and assemble 86% of the 844-megabase genome. We predict 39,031(More)
Microglia are the primary immune cells in the brain. Under physiological conditions, they typically stay in a "resting" state, with ramified processes continuously extending to and retracting from surrounding neural tissues. Whether and how such highly dynamic resting microglia functionally interact with surrounding neurons are still unclear. Using in vivo(More)
Most fruits in our daily diet are the products of domestication and breeding. Here we report a map of genome variation for a major fruit that encompasses ~3.6 million variants, generated by deep resequencing of 115 cucumber lines sampled from 3,342 accessions worldwide. Comparative analysis suggests that fruit crops underwent narrower bottlenecks during(More)
Appropriate cell number and organ size in a multicellular organism are determined by coordinated cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. Disruption of these processes can cause cancer. Recent studies have identified the Large tumor suppressor (Lats)/Warts (Wts) protein kinase as a key component of a pathway that controls the coordination between cell(More)
The transcription repressor Tramtrack (TTK) is found in cone cells but not photoreceptor cells of the Drosophila eye. We show that down-regulation of TTK expression occurs in photoreceptor cells and is required for their fate determination. Down-regulation requires the presence of Phyllopod (PHYL), which is induced by the RAS pathway, and Seven In Absentia(More)
Nuclei of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi have been described as highly diverse due to their asexual nature and absence of a single cell stage with only one nucleus. This has raised fundamental questions concerning speciation, selection and transmission of the genetic make-up to next generations. Although this concept has become textbook knowledge, it is(More)