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SPECIATE is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) repository of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) speciation profiles of air pollution sources. These source profiles can be used to (1) provide input to chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor models; (2) verify profiles derived from ambient measurements by multivariate (More)
Clinical studies have shown that drugs delivered intrathecally distribute much faster than can be accounted for by pure molecular diffusion. However, drug transport inside the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled spinal canal is poorly understood. In this study, comprehensive experimental and computational studies were conducted to quantify the effect of(More)
Spinal microstructures are known to substantially affect cerebrospinal fluid patterns, yet their actual impact on flow resistance has not been quantified. Because the length scale of microanatomical aspects is below medical image resolution, their effect on flow is difficult to observe experimentally. Using a computational fluid mechanics approach, we were(More)
BACKGROUND Intrathecal drug delivery is an efficient method to administer therapeutic molecules to the central nervous system. However, even with identical drug dosage and administration mode, the extent of drug distribution in vivo is highly variable and difficult to control. Different cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility from patient to patient may lead(More)
Aquaporin-4 water channels play a central role in brain water regulation in neurological disorders. Aquaporin-4 is abundantly expressed at the astroglial endfeet facing the cerebral vasculature and the pial membrane, and both its expression level and subcellular localization significantly influence brain water transport. However, measurements of aquaporin-4(More)
Address correspondence to Andreas A. Linninger, Laboratory for Product and Process Design (LPPD), Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 851 S. Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607, USA. Electronic mail: linninge@uic.edu The online version of the original article can be found under doi: 10.1007/s10439-011-0346-x. Annals of Biomedical(More)
Extracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt obstruction is one of the most important problems in hydrocephalus patient management. Despite ongoing research into better shunt design, robust and reliable detection of shunt malfunction remains elusive. The authors present a novel method of correlating degree of tissue ingrowth into ventricular CSF drainage(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) is the most difficult target for drug delivery therapies. Despite datasets available describing physiological, biochemical, cellular, and metabolic properties of the CNS, the development of infusion therapies still faces major delivery challenges. There is a need for the integration of data obtained from different(More)
Abstract Astrocytes are involved in many functions of the brain including water transport and moderation of neuronal synapses, and most functions require the astrocyte endfeet to be highly mobile. In the aging brain the functions in the brain start to deteriorate, decay or loss of metabolic functions may eventually cause diseases such as Parkinsons’s and(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channels play an important role in brain water homeostasis. Water transport across plasma membranes has a critical role in brain water exchange of the normal and the diseased brain. AQP4 channels are implicated in the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus, a disease of water imbalance that leads to CSF accumulation in the ventricular system.(More)