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17-β-estradiol (E2) is a steroid hormone involved in neuroprotection against excitotoxicity and other forms of brain injury. Through genomic and nongenomic mechanisms, E2 modulates neuronal excitability and signal transmission by regulating NMDA and non-NMDA receptors. However, the mechanisms and identity of the receptors involved remain unclear, even(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) can be activated by opioids such as morphine via opioid receptor, and their activations have been observed in synaptic plasticity, learning, memory and addiction. Long-term exposure to morphine may induce physical dependence, manifested as somatic withdrawal symptoms such as diarrhea, body weight loss, jumping and(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), an active component extracted from Polygonum multiflorum, on learning/memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We randomly divided 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats among 4 groups: (i) the sham-operated group (control); (ii) sham-operated(More)
Locomotor sensitization is the progressive and enduring enhancement of locomotion induced by stimulants such as drugs, which alter rodent locomotion in a long-standing manner. The dopamine D3 receptor has been reported to play a role in morphine addiction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dopamine D3 receptor in the morphine(More)
Morphine addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-taking behavior and high rates of relapse that reflect reward-controlled learning, consolidation and reconsolidation of drug cues. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) is one of the cellular molecules that have been highly implicated in the synaptic plasticity processes of learning and(More)
Let-7 family microRNAs have been reported to be downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma in comparison with normal hepatic tissues. Among them, let-7g was identified as the lowest expression using real-time RT-PCR. However, the mechanism by which let-7g works in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. Here, in our present study, we have had let-7g(More)
Repeated administration of opioids such as morphine leads to the development of tolerance to their pain-relieving effects as well as to physical dependence. Although the association between the dopamine system and the molecular mechanisms of morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance has been studied, the possible interaction between morphine-induced(More)