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Culex tarsalis Coquillett females were infected with the NY99 strain of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) and then incubated under constant temperatures of 10-30 degrees C. At selected time intervals, transmission was attempted using an in vitro capillary tube assay. The median time from imbibing an infectious bloodmeal until(More)
Arteriviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses that infect mammals. They can cause persistent or asymptomatic infections, but also acute disease associated with a respiratory syndrome, abortion or lethal haemorrhagic fever. During the past two decades, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and, to a lesser extent, equine arteritis(More)
European-like field isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have recently emerged in North America. The full-length genomic sequence of an index isolate characterized in 1999, strain EuroPRRSV, served as the reference strain for further studies of the evolution and epidemiology of European-like isolates (type 1) in the United(More)
Our knowledge about the structure and function of the nonstructural proteins (nsps) encoded by the arterivirus replicase gene has advanced in recent years. The continued characterization of the nsps of the arterivirus prototype equine arteritis virus has not only corroborated several important functional predictions, but also revealed various novel features(More)
Solar cells are attractive candidates for clean and renewable power; with miniaturization, they might also serve as integrated power sources for nanoelectronic systems. The use of nanostructures or nanostructured materials represents a general approach to reduce both cost and size and to improve efficiency in photovoltaics. Nanoparticles, nanorods and(More)
The ability of the invading NY99 strain of West Nile virus (WNV) to elicit an elevated viremia response in California passerine birds was critical for the effective infection of Culex mosquitoes. Of the bird species tested, Western scrub jays, Aphelocoma coerulescens, produced the highest viremia response, followed by house finches, Carpodacus mexicanus,(More)
A critical process in angiogenesis is endothelial cell proliferation, which requires activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. This study analyzed the pathway responsible for adenosine-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Characterization with adenosine receptor (AR) agonists and antagonists(More)
Carfilzomib, an irreversible proteasome inhibitor, has a favorable safety profile and significant antitumor activity in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Here we summarize the clinical pharmacokinetics (PK), metabolism, and drug-drug interaction (DDI) profile of carfilzomib. The PK of carfilzomib, infused over 2-10 minutes, was(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) transmission generally involves a mosquito vector and an avian reservoir host, with mammals as incidental hosts. Although most mammalian WNV infections cause low or no morbidity or mortality, tree squirrels are susceptible to WNV-associated neurologic disease with infection prevalence comparable to that in dead birds. Positive species(More)
We report electrical properties of hybrid structures consisting of arrays of nanowire field-effect transistors integrated with the individual axons and dendrites of live mammalian neurons, where each nanoscale junction can be used for spatially resolved, highly sensitive detection, stimulation, and/or inhibition of neuronal signal propagation. Arrays of(More)