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Culex tarsalis Coquillett females were infected with the NY99 strain of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) and then incubated under constant temperatures of 10-30 degrees C. At selected time intervals, transmission was attempted using an in vitro capillary tube assay. The median time from imbibing an infectious bloodmeal until(More)
The ability of the invading NY99 strain of West Nile virus (WNV) to elicit an elevated viremia response in California passerine birds was critical for the effective infection of Culex mosquitoes. Of the bird species tested, Western scrub jays, Aphelocoma coerulescens, produced the highest viremia response, followed by house finches, Carpodacus mexicanus,(More)
European-like field isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have recently emerged in North America. The full-length genomic sequence of an index isolate characterized in 1999, strain EuroPRRSV, served as the reference strain for further studies of the evolution and epidemiology of European-like isolates (type 1) in the United(More)
Arteriviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses that infect mammals. They can cause persistent or asymptomatic infections, but also acute disease associated with a respiratory syndrome, abortion or lethal haemorrhagic fever. During the past two decades, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and, to a lesser extent, equine arteritis(More)
Our knowledge about the structure and function of the nonstructural proteins (nsps) encoded by the arterivirus replicase gene has advanced in recent years. The continued characterization of the nsps of the arterivirus prototype equine arteritis virus has not only corroborated several important functional predictions, but also revealed various novel features(More)
West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) invaded southern California during 2003, successfully overwintered, amplified to epidemic levels, and then dispersed to every county in the state. Although surveillance programs successfully tracked and measured these events, mechanisms that allowed the efficient overwintering and subsequent(More)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) contains a cysteine protease domain at its N terminus, which belongs to the ovarian tumor (OTU) protease family. In this study, we demonstrated that the PRRSV nsp2 OTU domain antagonizes the type I interferon induction by interfering with the NF-kappaB signaling(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) transmission generally involves a mosquito vector and an avian reservoir host, with mammals as incidental hosts. Although most mammalian WNV infections cause low or no morbidity or mortality, tree squirrels are susceptible to WNV-associated neurologic disease with infection prevalence comparable to that in dead birds. Positive species(More)
The recent emergence of a unique group of North American type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in the United States presents new disease control problems for a swine industry that has already been impacted seriously by North American type 2 PRRSV. In this study, a full-length cDNA infectious clone was generated from a(More)