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Solar cells are attractive candidates for clean and renewable power; with miniaturization, they might also serve as integrated power sources for nanoelectronic systems. The use of nanostructures or nanostructured materials represents a general approach to reduce both cost and size and to improve efficiency in photovoltaics. Nanoparticles, nanorods and(More)
We report electrical properties of hybrid structures consisting of arrays of nanowire field-effect transistors integrated with the individual axons and dendrites of live mammalian neurons, where each nanoscale junction can be used for spatially resolved, highly sensitive detection, stimulation, and/or inhibition of neuronal signal propagation. Arrays of(More)
The development of a spatio-temporal access method suitable for objects moving on fixed networks is a very attractive challenge due to a large number of applications dealing with this type of objects. In this paper, we propose a novel indexing technique named PPFI which consists of a 2D R*-tree, a forest of 1D R*-tree, and a hash structure. PPFI not only(More)
Development of miniaturized devices that enable rapid and direct analysis of the specific binding of small molecules to proteins could be of substantial importance to the discovery of and screening for new drug molecules. Here, we report highly sensitive and label-free direct electrical detection of small-molecule inhibitors of ATP binding to Abl by using(More)
Characterized by immunosuppression regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a key role in maintaining immune tolerance. A growing number of tumours have been found with Tregs accumulating in microenvironment and patients with high density of Tregs in tumour stroma get a worse prognosis, which suggests that Tregs may inhibit anti-tumour immunity in stroma, resulting(More)
Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) is an inducible transcription factor that plays a key role in inflammation and immune responses, as well as in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Previous studies by our group and others have demonstrated that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection could activate NF-κB in MARC-145(More)
BACKGROUND Although community structure and species richness are known to respond to nitrogen fertilization dramatically, little is known about the mechanisms underlying specific species replacement and richness loss. In an experiment in semiarid temperate steppe of China, manipulative N addition with five treatments was conducted to evaluate the effect of(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small, noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules approximately 22 nucleotides in length. miRNAs are involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of various important cellular physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and hormone biosynthesis and secretion. Ovarian(More)
On nanotextured noble-metal surfaces, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is observed, where Raman scattering is enhanced by a factor, G, that is frequently about one million, but underlying the factor G is a broad distribution of local enhancement factors, eta. We have measured this distribution for benzenethiolate molecules on a 330-nanometer(More)
Nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) have been shown to be powerful building blocks for nanoscale bioelectronic interfaces with cells and tissue due to their excellent sensitivity and their capability to form strongly coupled interfaces with cell membranes. Graphene has also been shown to be an attractive building block for nanoscale electronic(More)