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Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) is a particularly lethal form of breast cancer characterized by exaggerated lymphovascular invasion, which is a phenotype recapitulated in our human xenograft MARY-X. MARY-X generated spheroids in vitro that resemble the embryonal blastocyst. Because of the resemblance of the spheroids to the embryonal blastocyst and(More)
Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) is characterized by florid tumor emboli within lymphovascular spaces called lymphovascular invasion. These emboli have a unique microscopic appearance of compact clumps of tumor cells retracted away from the surrounding endothelial cell layer. Using a human SCID model of IBC (MARY-X), we, in previous studies, demonstrated(More)
Tumor neo-vascularization is critical for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis, which has been considered to be mediated by a mechanism of angiogenesis. However, histopathological studies have suggested that tumor cells might be the progenitor for tumor vasculature. Recently, we have reported that the precancerous stem cells (pCSCs) representing the early(More)
PIWIL2, a member of PIWI/AGO gene family, is expressed in the germline stem cells (GSCs) of testis for gametogenesis but not in adult somatic and stem cells. It has been implicated to play an important role in tumor development. We have previously reported that precancerous stem cells (pCSCs) constitutively express Piwil2 transcripts to promote their(More)
Two of the most common signalling pathways in breast cancer are the ER (oestrogen receptor) ligand activation pathway and the E-cadherin snai1 slug EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) pathway. Although these pathways have been thought to interact indirectly, the present study is the first to observe direct interactions between these pathways that(More)
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in human diet. Our previous in vitro study demonstrates that CGA presents anti-inflammatory activities in RAW 264.7 cells. Here we show that CGA protects mice against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). We treated mice with CGA (5, 20 and 50 mg/kg body weight) 30(More)
Piwil2, a member of AGO/PIWI family of proteins, has been reported to be expressed in precancerous stem cells (pCSCs), tumor cell lines and various types of human cancers. However, the significance of piwil2 expression in breast cancer has not been investigated. In this study, archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer specimens at various(More)
Generally, cancers may undergo the developmental stages of benign proliferation, precancer and invasive cancer. Identification of biomarkers that are expressed throughout the developmental stages will facilitate detection, prevention and therapy of cancer. Piwil2, a member of AGO/PIWI family of proteins, has been suggested to be associated with tumor(More)
l-Theanine is a unique amino acid in green tea. We here evaluated the protective effects of l-theanine on ethanol-induced liver injury in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed that l-theanine significantly protected hepatocytes against ethanol-induced cell cytotoxicity which displayed by decrease of viability and increase of LDH and AST. Furthermore, the(More)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in hematopoietic and solid tumors. However, their precursors-namely, precancerous stem cells (pCSCs) -have not been characterized. Here we experimentally define the pCSCs that have the potential for both benign and malignant differentiation, depending on environmental cues. While clonal pCSCs can develop into(More)