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Galanin is a neuropeptide widely expressed in the brain. It is implicated in energy expenditure, feeding, and the regulation of body weight. Numerous studies have revealed that galanin regulates food intake via galanin receptors, 5-HT(1A) receptor and adrenergic α-2 receptor. In this review, we summarize recent findings that reveal the essential role of(More)
Microtubule (MT)-dependent MT nucleation by γ-tubulin is required for interphase plant cells to establish a highly dynamic cortical MT network underneath the plasma membrane, which influences the deposition of cell wall materials and consequently governs patterns of directional cell expansion. Newly formed MTs either assume 40° angles or are parallel to the(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether enhanced galanin (GAL) release induced by exercise would elevate insulin sensitivity and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) concentration in the plasma membranes of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetic rats. We used M35, a GAL antagonist to antagonize the GAL function and swimming training for four weeks to increase(More)
Although galanin has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle of rats, there is no literature available about the effect of galanin on Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation from intracellular membrane pools to plasma membranes in adipocytes of type 2 diabetic rats. In the present study M35, a galanin antagonist was used to(More)
Microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (F-actin) function cooperatively to regulate plant cell morphogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between these two cytoskeletal systems, particularly in cell shape control, remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that introduction of the MyTH4-FERM tandem into KCBP (kinesin-like(More)
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