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Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by(More)
OBJECTIVE Our aim was to investigate the effects of Spirulina on BV-2 microglial cell cytotoxicity and inflammatory genes expression. METHODS BV-2 microglial cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/ml) and various concentrations of Spirulina platensis water extract or its active component (C-phycocyanin (C-PC)) for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on the blood sugar, lipids and oxidative status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 26 outpatient subjects of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, with HbA1c levels between 7.0 and 10.0% and triglyceride <400 mg/dL were enrolled in the present study. Subjects(More)
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS The expression of the genes for cyclooxygenase (COX) and NMDA receptor (NR) has seldom been reported in tinnitus. We hypothesized that expression of COX-2 and NR was altered in the cochlea and midbrain in salicylate-induced tinnitus. STUDY DESIGN Experimental study on mice. METHODS We evaluated the tinnitus score and mRNA expression(More)
Various formulations of agricultural chemicals, including solutions, wettable powders, and emulsifiable concentrates, contain adjuvants of solvents and surfactants in addition to active ingredients. Among these formulations, herbicides are among the most commonly used pesticides globally. Some pesticides have been demonstrated to cause severe circulatory(More)
BACKGROUND Changes in the gene expressions for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and/or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) during tinnitus have not been previously reported. We evaluated tinnitus and mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) genes in cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice after intraperitoneal(More)
In the present study, we evaluated the beneficial effect of mulberry extracts (ME), which are rich in phenolics and anthocyanins, on the induction of antioxidant enzymes and on the promotion of cognition in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP). Six-month old SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.18% and 0.9% ME for consecutive 12(More)
The present study was carried out to explore the effects of oolong and green teas on improving the memory deficits and brain pathological changes in senescence accelerated-prone mice P8 (SAMP8). Six-month-old mice were supplied with oolong tea, green tea or water as the sole drinking fluid for 16 wk. The memory ability of mice was evaluated by passive and(More)
Spirulina has proven to be effective in treating certain cancers, hyperlipidemia, immunodeficiency, and inflammatory processes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Spirulina on memory dysfunction, oxidative stress damage and antioxidant enzyme activity. Three-month-old male senescence-accelerated prone-8 (SAMP8) mice were randomly assigned(More)
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of Toona sinensis Roemor extracts on antioxidative activities, brain morphological changes and cognitive ability. In an in vitro study, the antioxidant capacities of water extracts from Toona sinensis Roemor leaf (TSL), root (TSR) and bark (TSB) were evaluated by an(More)