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Obesity and its associated metabolic syndromes represent a growing global challenge, yet mechanistic understanding of this pathology and current therapeutics are unsatisfactory. We discovered that CD4(+) T lymphocytes, resident in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), control insulin resistance in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Analyses of human tissue(More)
Obesity is associated with numerous inflammatory conditions including atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease and cancer. Although the precise mechanisms are unknown, obesity-associated rises in TNF-alpha, IL-6 and TGF-beta are believed to contribute. Here we demonstrate that obesity selectively promotes an expansion of the Th17 T-cell sublineage, a subset with(More)
In type 1 diabetes, T cell-mediated death of pancreatic beta cells produces insulin deficiency. However, what attracts or restricts broadly autoreactive lymphocyte pools to the pancreas remains unclear. We report that TRPV1(+) pancreatic sensory neurons control islet inflammation and insulin resistance. Eliminating these neurons in diabetes-prone NOD mice(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes reflects autoimmune destruction of beta-cells and peri-islet Schwann cells (pSCs), but the mechanisms of pSC death and the T-cell epitopes involved remain unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Primary pSC cultures were generated and used as targets in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assays in NOD mice. Cognate interaction between pSC(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from autoimmune-mediated loss of insulin-producing beta-cells. Recent findings suggest that the events controlling T1D development are not only immunological, but also neuronal in nature. In the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of T1D, a mutant sensory neuron channel, TRPV1, initiates chronic, progressive beta-cell stress,(More)
This paper describes the implementation of a constraint-based parser, PARSEC , which has the required flexibility for a user to easily construct a custom grammar and test it. Once the user designs grammar parameters, constraints, and a lexicon, our system checks them for consistency and creates a parser for the grammar. The parser has an X-windows interface(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by autoimmune beta cell destruction. The early events triggering T1D and the forces that keep diabetic autoimmunity pancreas specific have been unclear. Our discovery that autoimmune islet destruction is not beta-cell-exclusive but includes cytotoxic T cell targeting of peri-islet glia, evoked the possibility that T1D(More)