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A major challenge of biology is understanding the relationship between molecular genetic variation and variation in quantitative traits, including fitness. This relationship determines our ability to predict phenotypes from genotypes and to understand how evolutionary forces shape variation within and between species. Previous efforts to dissect the(More)
Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more(More)
Central nervous system control of energy balance affects susceptibility to obesity and diabetes, but how fatty acids, malonyl-CoA, and other metabolites act at this site to alter metabolism is poorly understood. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS), rate limiting for de novo lipogenesis, decreases appetite independently of leptin but also(More)
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disorder in which surfactant-derived lipoproteins accumulate excessively within pulmonary alveoli, causing severe respiratory distress. The importance of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the pathogenesis of PAP has been confirmed in humans and mice, wherein GM-CSF signaling is(More)
The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. Accession numbers for all primary sequencing data are given in Supplementary Information. Abstract A variety of microbial communities and their genes (microbiome) exist throughout the human body, playing fundamental roles in human health(More)
BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of obesity is reportedly related to variations in the fat mass and an obesity-associated gene (FTO); however, as the number of reports increases, particularly with respect to varying ethnicities, there is a need to determine more precisely the effect sizes in each ethnic group. In addition, some reports have claimed(More)
Tricin was recently discovered in lignin preparations from wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw and subsequently in all monocot samples examined. To provide proof that tricin is involved in lignification and establish the mechanism by which it incorporates into the lignin polymer, the 4'-O-β-coupling products of tricin with the monolignols (p-coumaryl,(More)
Many receptors undergo ligand-induced conformational changes to initiate signal transduction. Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) are bacterial receptors that exhibit dramatic conformational changes upon ligand binding. These proteins mediate a wide variety of fundamental processes including transport, chemotaxis, and quorum sensing. Despite the importance(More)
In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART). A total of 916 men (457 HBV-positive and 459 HBV-negative) seeking fertility assistance from January 2008 to December 2009 at the Women's Hospital in the School of Medicine at Zhejiang University(More)
Early pregnancy loss (EPL) is one of the most common complications of human reproduction. Combined with our previous proteomic studies on villous and decidual tissues of EPL, we found that alterations of the proteins involved in oxidative stress (OS), unfolded protein response (UPR) and proteolysis presented a complex and dynamic interaction at the(More)