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Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a set of macrophages residing in the tumour microenvironment. They play essential roles in mediating tumour angiogenesis, metastasis and immune evasion. Delivery of therapeutic agents to eliminate TAMs can be a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy but an efficient vehicle to target these cells is still in(More)
Our evolving understandings of cell-material interactions provide insights for using polymers to modulate cell behaviour that may lead to therapeutic applications. It is known that in certain cancers, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play vital roles in promoting tumour progression, chiefly because of their 'alternatively activated' (or M2)(More)
Transplantation of muscle precursor cells is of therapeutic interest for focal skeletal muscular diseases. However, major limitations of cell transplantation are the poor survival, expansion and migration of the injected cells. The massive and early death of transplanted myoblasts is not fully understood although several mechanisms have been suggested.(More)
In this study, we developed a novel near-infrared fluorescence based multiplex lateral flow immunoassay by conjugating a near-infrared label to broad-specificity monoclonal antibody/receptor as detection complexes. Different antigens were dispensed onto separate test zones of nitrocellulose membrane to serve as capture reagents. This assay format allowed(More)
Development of new, antimetastatic drugs from natural products has been substantially constrained by the lack of a reliable in vitro screening system. Such a system should ideally mimic the native, three-dimensional (3D) tumor microenvironment involving different cell types and allow quantitative analysis of cell behavior critical for metastasis. These(More)
A multiplex lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) is developed for the simultaneous on-site determination of three mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and ochratoxin A) in corn, rice and peanut. By systematically optimizing the preparation of antibody-gold nanoparticle conjugates, the size of gold nanoparticle and the position of capture antigen, the developed(More)
The biomaterials-host interaction is a dynamic process in which macrophages play a vital role of regulation. Depending on the biochemical signals they sense, these highly plastic cells can mediate the immune response against the implanted scaffolds and/or exert regenerative potency to varying extent. Designing appropriate 'exterior signals' for scaffolds(More)
The objective of this study was to develop a micro-plate based colorimetric assay for rapid and high-throughput detection of copper in animal feed. Copper ion in animal feed was extracted by trichloroacetic acid solution and reduced to cuprous ion by hydroxylamine. The cuprous ion can chelate with 2,2'-bicinchoninic acid to form a Cu-BCA complex which was(More)
Biomaterials scaffolds designed for many regenerative applications are expected to support neo-vascularisation, which is now being hampered by two limitations - the instability of exogenous growth factors (GFs) that are delivered to promote angiogenesis; and the loss of extracellular matrix components that bind and stabilise GFs. Here, we report the design(More)
The adverse effects of nanomaterials on the living system have attracted considerable attention in the past few years. Such effects may come from either the core nanomaterials or the chemical agents used to modify the nanomaterials - the latter being largely overlooked. In a free form, these modifying agents might have little impact on living cells;(More)