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The thermodynamic interactions between membrane and sludge flocs in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) were investigated. It was found that Lewis acid-base (AB) interaction predominated in the total interactions. The interaction energy composition of membrane-sludge flocs combination was quite similar to that of membrane-bovine serum albumin (BSA)(More)
Effects of both membrane and sludge foulant surface zeta potentials on interfacial interactions between membrane and sludge foulant in different interaction scenarios were systematically investigated based on thermodynamic methods. Under conditions in this study, it was found that zeta potential had marginal effects on total interfacial interaction between(More)
BACKGROUND Southwestern Henan Province in central China contains many down-faulted basins, including the Xixia Basin where the Upper Cretaceous continental sediments are well exposed. The Majiacun Formation is a major dinosaur-bearing stratigraphic unit that occurs in this basin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS A new basal hadrosauroid dinosaur,(More)
Low molecular water-soluble chitosan was prepared by the depolymerization of chitosan in the presence of a series of catalysts with active W(O2) sites. Both the peroxo species [W2O3(O2)4]2- and {PO4[WO(O2)2]4}3- showed high efficiency in the degradation of chitosan, indicating that the degradation mechanism did not follow the radical mechanism. That means(More)
The interfacial interactions between sludge foulants and four different types of membranes were assessed based on a new combined calculation method. Effects of membrane surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity on the interfacial interactions were investigated. It was found that, membrane surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity was not directly relevant to the(More)
TiO2 nanomaterial is promising with its high potential and outstanding performance in photocatalytic environmental applications, such as CO2 conversion, water treatment, and air quality control. For many of these applications, the particle size, crystal structure and phase, porosity, and surface area influence the activity of TiO2 dramatically. TiO2(More)
Big gap between experimental filtration resistance of cake layer formed on membrane surface and the hydraulic resistance calculated through the Carman-Kozeny equation, suggested the existence of a new membrane fouling mechanism: osmotic pressure during cake layer filtration in SMBR system. An osmotic pressure model based on chemical potential difference was(More)
This paper presents a visible-light driven photocatalyst, VYO composite, which was synthesized by doping YVO(4) with V(2)O(5). The catalytic testing results indicate that the photocatalyst shows high activity for photodegradation of acetone under both UV and visible light. The highest acetone conversion was obtained over V(1.5)Y(1)O(x) composite catalyst.(More)
The fouling mechanisms underlying gel layer formation and its filtration resistance in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) were investigated. It was found that gel layer rather than cake layer was more easily formed when soluble microbial products content in sludge suspension was relatively high. Thermodynamic analyses showed that gel layer formation(More)
In this paper, a novel approach to construct three-dimensional (3D) surface morphology of sludge flocs in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was proposed. The new approach combined the static light scattering method for fractal dimension (Df) determination with the modified two-variable Weierstrass-Mandelbrot (WM) function based on fractal geometry and coordinate(More)