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Influenza epidemics cause morbidity and mortality worldwide (4). Each year in the United States, more than 200,000 patients are admitted to hospitals because of influenza and there are approximately 36,000 influenza-related deaths (14). In recent years, several subtypes of avian influenza viruses have jumped host species to infect humans. The H5N1 subtype,(More)
Influenza viruses are remarkably adept at surviving in the human population over a long timescale. The human influenza A virus continues to thrive even among populations with widespread access to vaccines, and continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The virus mutates from year to year, making the existing vaccines ineffective on a regular(More)
Until recently, members of the monogeneric family Arenaviridae (arenaviruses) have been known to infect only muroid rodents and, in one case, possibly phyllostomid bats. The paradigm of arenaviruses exclusively infecting small mammals shifted dramatically when several groups independently published the detection and isolation of a divergent group of(More)
UNLABELLED The Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) 2b protein is an RNA-silencing suppressor that plays roles in CMV accumulation and virulence. The 2b proteins of subgroup IA CMV strains partition between the nucleus and cytoplasm, but the biological significance of this is uncertain. We fused an additional nuclear localization signal (NLS) to the 2b protein of(More)
Understanding the evolution of influenza A viruses in humans is important for surveillance and vaccine strain selection. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of 156 complete genomes of human H3N2 influenza A viruses collected between 1999 and 2004 from New York State, United States, and observed multiple co-circulating clades with different population(More)
The RefSeq project at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) maintains and curates a publicly available database of annotated genomic, transcript, and protein sequence records (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/refseq/). The RefSeq project leverages the data submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC)(More)
The task of international expert groups is to recommend the classification and naming of viruses. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Filoviridae Study Group and other experts have recently established an almost consistent classification and nomenclature for filoviruses. Here, further guidelines are suggested to include their natural genetic(More)
In 2014, Ebola virus (EBOV) was identified as the etiological agent of a large and still expanding outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa and a much more confined EVD outbreak in Middle Africa. Epidemiological and evolutionary analyses confirmed that all cases of both outbreaks are connected to a single introduction each of EBOV into human(More)
Specific alterations (mutations, deletions, insertions) of virus genomes are crucial for the functional characterization of their regulatory elements and their expression products, as well as a prerequisite for the creation of attenuated viruses that could serve as vaccine candidates. Virus genome tailoring can be performed either by using traditionally(More)
The number of viral genome sequences in the public databases is increasing dramatically, and these sequences are playing an important role in virus classification. Pairwise sequence comparison is a sequence-based virus classification method. A program using this method calculates the pairwise identities of virus sequences within a virus family and displays(More)