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Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more(More)
A major challenge of biology is understanding the relationship between molecular genetic variation and variation in quantitative traits, including fitness. This relationship determines our ability to predict phenotypes from genotypes and to understand how evolutionary forces shape variation within and between species. Previous efforts to dissect the(More)
Diverse epidemiological factors are associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prevalence in different populations. However, the global landscape of the genetic changes in HCC genomes underpinning different epidemiological and ancestral backgrounds still remains uncharted. Here a collection of data from 503 liver cancer genomes from different(More)
The Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) is a community resource of 205 sequenced inbred lines, derived to improve our understanding of the effects of naturally occurring genetic variation on molecular and organismal phenotypes. We used an integrated genotyping strategy to identify 4,853,802 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and(More)
Chronic low-grade adipose tissue and liver inflammation is a major cause of systemic insulin resistance and is a key component of the low degree of insulin sensitivity that exists in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Immune cells, such as macrophages, T cells, B cells, mast cells and eosinophils, have all been implicated as having a role in this process.(More)
BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of obesity is reportedly related to variations in the fat mass and an obesity-associated gene (FTO); however, as the number of reports increases, particularly with respect to varying ethnicities, there is a need to determine more precisely the effect sizes in each ethnic group. In addition, some reports have claimed(More)
De novo lipogenesis is an energy-expensive process whose role in adult mammals is poorly understood. We generated mice with liver-specific inactivation of fatty-acid synthase (FAS), a key lipogenic enzyme. On a zero-fat diet, FASKOL (FAS knockout in liver) mice developed hypoglycemia and fatty liver, which were reversed with dietary fat. These phenotypes(More)
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disorder in which surfactant-derived lipoproteins accumulate excessively within pulmonary alveoli, causing severe respiratory distress. The importance of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the pathogenesis of PAP has been confirmed in humans and mice, wherein GM-CSF signaling is(More)
STUDY QUESTION What is the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Han Chinese women from different communities? SUMMARY ANSWER The prevalence of PCOS in Chinese women aged 19-45 years is 5.6%. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The prevalence of PCOS is reported to range from 5 to 10% but to the best of our knowledge the Han Chinese population has not(More)