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Topology optimization is a considerably practical aid in structural design as it produces design solutions of high performance by finding the optimal structural layout. It is capable of speeding up the structural design process and producing reliable solutions to various engineering problems. This area has been extensively investigated in the past three(More)
To understand the structural changes of lignin after soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment, milled straw lignin, black liquor lignin and residual lignin extracted from wheat straw were characterized by FT-IR, UV, GPC and NMR. The results showed that the main lignin linkages were β-aryl ether substructures (β-O-4'), followed by phenylcoumaran (β-5') and resinol(More)
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