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In the present study the specifically13C-enriched lignin precursors of biosynthesis (i.e., coniferin-[side chainα−13C], coniferin-[side chain-β−13C] and coniferin-[side chain-γ−13C]) were synthesized and administered exogeneously to ginkgo shoots (Ginkgo biloba L.) to obtain13C-enriched lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCs). The specifically13C-enriched LCCs(More)
To understand the structural changes of lignin after soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment, milled straw lignin, black liquor lignin and residual lignin extracted from wheat straw were characterized by FT-IR, UV, GPC and NMR. The results showed that the main lignin linkages were β-aryl ether substructures (β-O-4'), followed by phenylcoumaran (β-5') and resinol(More)
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are regarded as prospective solar cells for the next generation of photovoltaic technologies and have become research hotspots in the PV field. The counter electrode, as a crucial component of DSSCs, collects electrons from the external circuit and catalyzes the redox reduction in the electrolyte, which has a significant(More)
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