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OBJECTIVE To investigate the modulation of expression of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in articular chondrocytes by inflammatory cytokines. DESIGN Articular synovium and cartilage tissues were collected from eight patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and three patients without arthropathy ("normal"). Chondrocytes were stimulated with interleukin(More)
OBJECTIVE A contribution of mast cells and its mediators in the pathogenesis of arthritis has been postulated. We aimed to clarify the role of mast cell-derived serine protease tryptase and proteinase activated receptor (PAR)-2-mediated signaling in chondrocytes. METHODS Human articular cartilage specimens were obtained from patients with osteoarthritis(More)
Autoimmune diseases are common by diseases characterized by disorders of immune responses and autoimmune impairment involving multiple tissues, organs and systems. The autoantigens (Ags)/autoantibodies (Abs) are not only hallmarks but also involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In recent years, proteomics technologies have been used and(More)
(4) (The committee should have multiple members but only one chair.) a. John knows which professors can form the committee. (okMS, okMA) √ For some group of professors X s.t. X together can form the committee, J knows that X together can form the committee. √ For every group of professors X, if X together can form the committee, J knows that X together can(More)
This paper looks at the distributional pattern of NPIs under the exclusive focus particle only. Despite the commonly accepted view that only can license an NPI that appears within the unfocused part of its immediate scope, Wagner (2006) observes evidence contra this view from both DP-only and VP-only: (i) DP-only does not license an NPI that appears within(More)
Two canonical negatives in Mandarin, mei and bu, display an asymmetry with respect to the presence of negraising inferences. In particular, mei prefers non-neg-raising readings, while bu, unless attaching to a functional category, is forced to be interpreted as neg-raising. This paper aims to explore an approach to address this asymmetry based on(More)
It is commonly argued that weak negative polarity items (NPIs) (e.g., any) can occur in any (Strawson) downward-entailing environment. This generalization, however, is challenged byWagner’s (2006) observations with the NPI-licenser only: although an only-clause is (Strawson) downward-entailing in its unfocused part, NPIs are not necessarily licensed there.(More)
This paper offers an explanation to the obligatory neg-raising (NR) phenomenon with Mandarin negative bu. This explanation follows Xiang’s (2014) exhaustification-based account for (non-)NR, that non-NR readings are derived via local exhaustification or double exhaustification. Based on mixed evidence from both syntax and semantics, especially the(More)