Learn More
Voltage-gated sodium channels in brain neurons were found to associate with receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTPbeta) and its catalytically inactive, secreted isoform phosphacan, and this interaction was regulated during development. Both the extracellular domain and the intracellular catalytic domain of RPTPbeta interacted with sodium channels.(More)
The clinical efficacy of local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drugs is due to their voltage- and frequency-dependent block of Na+ channels. Quaternary local anesthetic analogs such as QX-314, which are permanently charged and membrane-impermeant, effectively block cardiac Na+ channels when applied from either side of the membrane but block neuronal Na+(More)
Brain sodium channels are complexes of a pore-forming alpha subunit with auxiliary beta subunits, which are transmembrane proteins that modulate alpha subunit function. The newly cloned beta3 subunit is shown to be expressed broadly in neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems, but not in glia and most nonneuronal cells. Beta1, beta2, and beta3(More)
The voltage-gated sodium channel is the site of action of more than six classes of neurotoxins and drugs that alter its function by interaction with distinct, allosterically coupled receptor sites. Batrachotoxin (BTX) is a steroidal alkaloid that binds to neurotoxin receptor site 2 and causes persistent activation. BTX binding is inhibited allosterically by(More)
Inactivation of both brain and cardiac Na+ channels is modulated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) but in different ways. Previous experiments had shown that phosphorylation of serine 1506 in the highly conserved loop connecting homologous domains III and IV (LIII/IV) of the brain Na+ channel alpha subunit is necessary for all effects of PKC. Here we(More)
Mexiletine is a class I antiarrhythmic drug with neuroprotective effects in models of brain ischemia attributable to inhibition of brain sodium channels. We compared effects of R-mexiletine on wild-type and mutant rat brain (rbIIA) and heart (rh1) sodium channel alpha-subunits transiently expressed in tsA-201 cells. R-mexiletine induced tonic and(More)
Voltage-gated sodium channels consist of a pore-forming alpha subunit associated with beta1 subunits and, for brain sodium channels, beta2 subunits. Although much is known about the structure and function of the alpha subunit, there is little information on the functional role of the 16 extracellular loops. To search for potential functional activities of(More)
Enzymatically isolated myocytes from ferret right ventricles (12-16 wk, male) were studied using the whole cell patch clamp technique. The macroscopic properties of a transient outward K+ current I(to) were quantified. I(to) is selective for K+, with a PNa/PK of 0.082. Activation of I(to) is a voltage-dependent process, with both activation and inactivation(More)
Block of the calcium-independent transient outward K+ current, I(to), by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) was studied in ferret right ventricular myocytes using the whole cell patch clamp technique. 4-AP reduces I(to) through a closed state blocking mechanism displaying "reverse use-dependent" behavior that was inferred from: (a) development of tonic block at(More)
Voltage-gated Na+ channels consist of a large alpha subunit of 260 kDa associated with beta 1 and/or beta 2 subunits of 36 and 33 kDa, respectively. alpha subunits of rat cardiac Na+ channels (rH1) are functional when expressed alone in Xenopus oocytes or mammalian cells. beta 1 subunits are present in the heart, and localization of beta 1 subunit mRNA by(More)