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BACKGROUND Rats given extended access to cocaine develop several symptoms of addiction, including a gradual escalation of drug intake, whereas rats given limited access do not. We asked here whether extended access to cocaine also produces drug-induced sensitization, a form of neurobehavioral plasticity implicated in addiction. METHODS Rats were given(More)
Drugs of abuse and many other kinds of experiences share the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines, the primary site of excitatory synapses in the brain. We hypothesized, therefore, that exposure to psychostimulant drugs might influence later experience-dependent structural plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by treating rats(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 polymorphisms and irinotecan-induced toxicities in Chinese advanced gastric or esophageal cancer patients. The genotypes of UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 were analyzed by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing in 42 gastric and 91 esophageal cancer patients(More)
Soil nitrogen (N) is available to rice crops as either nitrate or ammonium, but only nitrate can be accrued in cells and so factors that influence its storage and remobilization are important for N use efficiency (NUE). The hypothesis that the ability of rice crops to remobilize N storage pools is an indicator of NUE was tested. When two commonly grown(More)
The potential for addiction is thought to be greatest when drugs of abuse reach the brain rapidly, because this produces intense subjective pleasurable effects. However, the ability of drugs to induce forms of cellular plasticity related to behavioral sensitization may also contribute to addiction. Therefore, we studied the influence of rate of intravenous(More)
Repeated exposure to cocaine increases the density of dendritic spines on medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) and pyramidal cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To determine if this is associated with the development of psychomotor sensitization, rats were given daily i.p. injections of 15 mg/kg of cocaine (or saline) for 8 days,(More)
BACKGROUND This study was intended to determine the clinical significance of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC), particularly the potential role of CTCs for dynamic monitoring of the therapeutic response. METHODS A single-centre, prospective study was undertaken in 136 patients with newly diagnosed AGC. The(More)
We examined whether early maternal separation influenced the susceptibility to behavioural sensitization produced by repeated intravenous (i.v.) injections of cocaine in adult female rats. For the first 21 days of life litters were separated from their mother for either 15 min (MS-15) or 180 min/day (MS-180). Control animals were subjected only to regular(More)
We studied the long-term effects of amphetamine self-administration experience (or sucrose reward training) on dendritic morphology (spine density) in nucleus accumbens (Nacc), medial (MPC) and orbital prefrontal cortex (OFC), and hippocampus (CA1 and dentate). Independent groups of rats were trained under a continuous schedule of reinforcement to nose-poke(More)
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) receives input from all other cortical regions and functions to plan and direct motor, cognitive, affective, and social behavior across time. It has a prolonged development, which allows the acquisition of complex cognitive abilities through experience but makes it susceptible to factors that can lead to abnormal functioning,(More)