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Molecular electronics is often limited by the poorly defined nature of the contact between the molecules and the metal surface. We describe a method to wire molecules into gaps in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Precise oxidative cutting of a SWNT produces carboxylic acid-terminated electrodes separated by gaps of </=10 nanometers. These point(More)
Keywords: Optimal reactive power flow Artificial bee colony Differential evolution DE–ABC Hybrid algorithm a b s t r a c t Optimal Reactive Power Flow (ORPF) is a branch problem in the gradual development of the optimal power flow problem. Differential Evolution (DE) has been proved to be a promising evolutionary algorithm for solving the ORPF problem, but(More)
An EO phase modulator having transparent conducting oxide electrodes and an inverted rib waveguide structure is demonstrated. This new modulator geometry employs an EO polymer having an in-device r33 = 60pm/V. The measured half-wave voltage Vpi of these devices ranges from 5.3V to 11.2V for 3.8 and 1.5 mm long devices, respectively. The lowest VpiL(More)