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The nine-variable De Young-Keizer model (1992) for [Ca2+]i oscillations mediated by InsP3 receptor channels in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane is analyzed and reduced to a two-variable system. The different time scales in the three basic channel gating processes, namely InsP3 regulation, Ca2+ activation, and Ca2+ inactivation, are revealed and(More)
During rat cortical development, when neurons migrate from the ventricular zone to the cortical plate, GABA localizes within the target destinations of migratory neurons. At this time, cells in germinal zones and along migratory pathways express GABA receptor subunit transcripts, implying that in vivo, GABA may be a chemoattractant. We used an in vitro(More)
Burst firing of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta can be induced in vitro by the glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate. It has been suggested that the interburst hyperpolarization is due to Na+ extrusion by a ouabain-sensitive pump [Johnson et al. (1992) Science 258, 665-667]. We formulate and explore a theoretical model, with a(More)
Embryonic rat hippocampal neurons were cultured on poly-D-lysine (PDL) or a monolayer of postnatal cortical astrocytes to reveal putative changes in neuronal physiology that involve astrocyte-derived signals during the first 4 d of culture, GABA-induced Cl- current (IGABA) was quantified using outside-out and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings beginning at(More)
Neonatal seizures can be refractory to conventional anticonvulsants, and this may in part be due to a developmental increase in expression of the neuronal Na(+)-K(+)-2 Cl(-) cotransporter, NKCC1, and consequent paradoxical excitatory actions of GABAA receptors in the perinatal period. The most common cause of neonatal seizures is hypoxic encephalopathy, and(More)
GABA is formed primarily from decarboxylation of glutamate by a family of cytosolic and membrane-bound GAD enzymes. In the adult, GAD-derived GABA sustains the vitality of the central nervous system (CNS), since blockage of GAD rapidly leads to convulsions and death. In plants, cytosolic GAD synthesizes GABA in response to hormones and environmental stress.(More)
BACKGROUND Newborn screening for deficiency in the lysosomal enzymes that cause Fabry, Gaucher, Krabbe, Niemann-Pick A/B, and Pompe diseases is warranted because treatment for these syndromes is now available or anticipated in the near feature. We describe a multiplex screening method for all five lysosomal enzymes that uses newborn-screening cards(More)
The recent research has shown that the basic RTS/CTS approach is not efficient in multihop wireless networks. In this paper, we propose a novel medium access control protocol with a separate control channel (MAC-SCC). A distinct feature of MAC-SCC (compared with other multichan-nel MAC protocols) is to use two Network Allocation Vectors (NAVs) for the data(More)