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This review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the biology of the physiologically and pharmacologically important transport system termed the “reduced folate carrier” (RFC). The ubiquitously expressed RFC has unequivocally established itself as the major transport system in mammalian cells and tissues for a group of compounds including folate(More)
Category A arenaviruses as defined by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) are human pathogens that could be weaponized by bioterrorists. Many of these deadly viruses require biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) containment for all laboratory work, which limits traditional laboratory high-throughput screening (HTS) for identification of(More)
The macrophage scavenger receptor CD36 plays an important role in the uptake of oxidized forms of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and contributes to lesion development in murine models of atherosclerosis. However, the structural basis of CD36 lipoprotein ligand recognition is unknown. We now identify a novel class of oxidized phospholipids that serve as high(More)
Evidence has been presented for a metabolic multienzyme complex, the purinosome, that participates in de novo purine biosynthesis to form clusters in the cytoplasm of living cells under purine-depleted conditions. Here we identified, using fluorescent live cell imaging, that a microtubule network appears to physically control the spatial distribution of(More)
The macrophage scavenger receptor CD36 plays an important role in binding and uptake of oxidized forms of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), foam cell formation, and lesion development during atherosclerosis. The structural basis of CD36-lipoprotein ligand recognition is an area of intense interest. In a companion article we reported the characterization of a(More)
Birinapant (1) is a second-generation bivalent antagonist of IAP proteins that is currently undergoing clinical development for the treatment of cancer. Using a range of assays that evaluated cIAP1 stability and oligomeric state, we demonstrated that 1 stabilized the cIAP1-BUCR (BIR3-UBA-CARD-RING) dimer and promoted autoubiquitylation of cIAP1 in vitro.(More)
Reduced folate carrier (RFC) is the major membrane transporter for folates and antifolates in mammalian tissues. Recent studies used radioaffinity labeling with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-[(3)H]methotrexate (MTX) to localize substrate binding to residues in transmembrane domain (TMD) 11 of human RFC. To identify the modified residue(s), seven nucleophilic(More)
2-Amino-4-oxo-6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines with a thienoyl side chain and four to six carbon bridge lengths (compounds 1-3) were synthesized as substrates for folate receptors (FRs) and the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT). Conversion of acetylene carboxylic acids to alpha-bromomethylketones and condensation with(More)
The enzymes in the human de novo purine synthesis pathway were found to form a cellular complex, the purinosome, upon culturing cells in purine-depleted medium (An, S., Kumar R., Sheets, E. D., and Benkovic, S. J. (2008) Science 320, 103-106). Purinosome formation and dissociation were found to be modulated by several factors, including the microtubule(More)
The acquisition of apoptosis resistance is a fundamental event in cancer development. Among the mechanisms used by cancer cells to evade apoptosis is the dysregulation of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins. The activity of the IAPs is regulated by endogenous IAP antagonists such as SMAC (also termed DIABLO). Antagonism of IAP proteins by SMAC occurs via(More)