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Cadmium (Cd), a toxic environmental contaminant, induces neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we have shown that Cd elevates intracellular free calcium ion ([Ca(2+) ](i) ) level, leading to neuronal apoptosis partly by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. However, the underlying mechanism(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons. Dysregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. However, the underlying mechanism is incompletely elucidated. Here, we show that PD mimetics (6-hydroxydopamine, N-methyl-4-phenylpyridine or rotenone)(More)
Cadmium (Cd), a toxic environmental contaminant, induces neurodegenerative diseases. Celastrol, a plant-derived triterpene, has shown neuroprotective effects in various disease models. However, little is known regarding the effect of celastrol on Cd-induced neurotoxicity. Here, we show that celastrol protected against Cd-induced apoptotic cell death in(More)
AIMS This study explores the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) in mice exposed to cadmium (Cd). METHODS NAC (150 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to mice exposed to Cd (10-50 mg/L) in drinking water for 6 weeks. The changes of cell damage and death, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes, as well as(More)
B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF, also called BLyS, TALL-1, THANK, or zTNF4) has revealed its critical function in B lymphocyte proliferation and survival, as well as the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. However, the molecular mechanisms of excess BAFF-extended aggressive B lymphocytes have not been completely defined. Here we show that(More)
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